SOCIETIES AND EVENTS.
THE LONDON BOOK UNION: In 1860 or early 1861 a number of well
known literary personages suggested that a London Book Union be formed
with the object of making books more readily available to the working
classes. Promoters of this Union included William Blanchard
Jerrold (1826-1884) Secretary; Sir Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894)
archaeologist, author and art historian; W.H. Russell (1821-1907) war
correspondent for the Times; Anthony Trollope (1815-1882)
novelist; George Sala (1828-1895) journalist, and Gerald Massey
The Union was to be organised in a similar manner to the already
established Art Union, and was intended to 'be to Literature that which
the London Art Union has been to Art.' Subscribers were to pay one
guinea per year, by instalments of one shilling for which they would
receive a book of the value of one guinea. The residue of the
subscriptions, after expenses, were then to be apportioned into various
sums, and distributed to subscribers by ballot. Those subscribers
were then eligible for prizes of books equivalent in value to the sum
named as a prize. The book for 1862 was to be an edition of
Shakespeare. The first prize was for a library to the value of 300
guineas, with most of the prizes being of five guineas.
Unfortunately this scheme was short-lived. In May 1861 a bill
introduced in Parliament by Layard to legalise book unions, similar to
Art Union, was rejected by the House of Lords in July.
For the London Book Union see the: Eclectic Magazine, Sept.-Dec.
1861, 143 For the London Art Union see the: Irish Quarterly
Review, Vol. III, xi, Dec. 1853, 994-5.
THE MOST ANCIENT ORDER OF DRUIDS: Massey was elected Chosen Chief
of the Most Ancient Order of Druids in 1880, replacing Edward Vaughan
Kenealy, a position that he held until 1906 when ill health forced his
resignation, and he handed over to John Barry O'Callaghan (1847-1909).
This was probably an honorarium, and entailed very little, if any,
actual work for the Order.
The reason for the Order of Druids in choosing O'Callaghan as
their Chosen Chief is unknown, except possibly in part for his work
against social injustice. Information regarding him is sparse.
A civil engineer by profession, he was evidently concerned with worker's
housing and welfare, and was Chairman of the Fair Rents Union formed in
1890 (The Fair Rents Union. Organization and Rules. London School
of Economics HD7/A15). This Union campaigned against unsanitary
conditions and for improved rented housing for the poor. Their
objectives were stated in the rules, that ‘… land values are created by
the community, and that all rents for ground or buildings should be
under statutory equitable regulation; in a word, judicial rents for town
as well as country.’ Also, ‘The Fair Rents Union will seek to
attain this object by attacking the evils of overcrowding, insanitation,
landlords' confiscation of tenants' and leaseholders improvements, and
all rack-renting.’ At a London meeting, O'Callaghan stated that
the union was formed to obtain healthy homes for the working classes of
the country. They wished to stop overcrowding … The landlord did not
care one iota for the unfortunate tenant's comfort providing that his
rent was ready for him every Monday morning. He mentioned that in
all cases the union would obtain the assistance of sanitary, legal, and
medical experts for tenants of rack-rented and unhealthy homes. (The
Times, 2 June, 1890, p.10.)
O'Callaghan had friendly discussions with Helen Taylor
(1831-1907) who was an active suffragette and the stepdaughter of John
Stuart Mill (1806-1883). She also had an interest in Irish
affairs. In a letter to her (Ref: London School of Economics
Archives, Mill-Taylor, Vol. 18, item 126.), O'Callaghan had mentioned a
new monthly Irish magazine commenced in London, The Hibernian
(British Library). This is listed for only five issues during
1885, and O'Callaghan did not contribute. O'Callaghan's brief
obituary is in The Times for 6 May, 1909.
THE ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY: Massey was elected to the
Fellowship of the Royal Historical Society on 21 July 1881 and resigned
on 17 October 1883. The Society has no records relating to either
his election or resignation, while he is not listed in their
‘Transactions’ as ever having presented any papers. His election
might have been connected in some way with publication of The Book of
the Beginnings in 1881, while by the end of 1882 Massey was known to
be suffering financial hardship. Relinquishing fellowship of the
RHS might have yielded an essential cash saving.
THE SAVAGE CLUB: This London gentleman's club, still in
existence, was founded in 1857 for the benefit of persons devoted to
Art, Literature and Music. Annual dinners were held at varying
venues, with speakers and musical entertainment. The dinner for
1887 was held at Willis' Rooms, King Street, under the presidency of the
Earl of Dunraven. Following the loyal toasts, the Chairman
proposed "Literature, Art and the Drama" in an effective speech.
Gerald Massey responded for Literature, Edward Terry for Drama and David
Anderson for Art. This was followed by musical arrangements.
It is unlikely that Massey was a member of the club, that had annual
subscriptions, but he was probably invited just for that occasion.
From Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper, 17 July 1887.
A dramatic reading of Massey's Shakespeare's Sonnets.
The Guardian, 13 April, 1919.
Sivori Antonio Joachim Levey (1879–1924) was a Lieutenant in the 13th
West Yorkshire Regiment. A pianist, composer, poet and arranger of
musical recitals and dramatic plays, he also published commentaries on
Shakespeare and Browning.
ARTICLES BY GERALD MASSEY
A representative chronological listing, named,
positively attributed, or by pseudonym, and including longer literary
AA Agnostic Annual
BL Banner of Light
CJ Cooper's Journal
CS Christian Socialist
ER Eclectic Review
EN Edinburgh News
FOP Friend of the People
FM Fraser's Magazine
HI Hogg's Instructor
NR National Review
MD Medium and Daybreak
NBR North British Review
NT Northern Tribune
RR Red Republican
QR Quarterly Review
SN Spiritualist Newspaper
SF Spirit of Freedom
UP Uxbridge Pioneer
SOF Star of Freedom
USF Uxbridge Spirit of Freedom
A Few Words on
Poetry. UP, 1, (Feb. 1849), 4-5.
Remaunt of Ancient Woxbrigge? UP, 1, (Feb. 1849), 7-8.
our Readers. UP, 1, (Feb. 1849), 8-10.
Dawson. UP, 1, (Feb. 1849), 10-11.
on, hold on, in the World's despite. USF, 8, (Nov. 1849), 120-21.
Middle-class Expediency. SF, Feb. 1850 (reprinted in the Northern
Star, 9 Feb. 1850, 3.
of Progress. CJ, I, 8, (Feb. 1850), 113-15.
or Republican? RR, 22 Jun. 1850, 5-6.
and Martyrdom. RR, 29 Jun. 1850, 10-11.
to be Lived. RR, 6 Jul. 1850, 19-20.
Great Want of the Time. RR, 31 Aug. 1850, 82-83.
Students: Gottfried Kinkel, and the Martyrs of 1848-49. FOP, 14 Dec.
Out of Egypt. FOP, 21 Dec. 1850, 11.
Petöfy the People's Poet of
Hungary. [Ed. - Sándor Petőfi]
FOP 7 Feb. 1851.
Brotherhood of Labour. CS, 1, (3 May 1851), 211.
and his Poetry. CS, 2, (20 Aug. 1851), 140-42. (6 Sep.) 155-57. (20
Princess. CS, 2, (27 Sep. 1851), 204-07. (4 Oct.) 220-22. (11 Oct.)
236-38. (18 Oct.) 246-47. (1 Nov.) 284-86.
Milton, his Life and Genius. FOP, 21 Feb. 1852, 1-2.
of Margaret Fuller Ossoli. FOP, 21 Feb. 1852, 22-23, 28 Feb. 1852,
A Voice from the Workshop; or
Thoughts in Rhyme. FOP, 21 Feb. 1852, 23.
the Immediate Necessity. FOP, 23 Feb. 1852, 27.
Jean De Beranger, his life and genius. FOP, 6 Mar. 1852, 33-34.
Poems. FOP, 6 Mar. 1852, 38-39.
Smith and Co-operation. FOP, 20 Mar. 1852, 51-52, 27 Mar. 1852, 58.
of Felicite Lamennais. FOP, 3 Apr. 1852, 5-6.
Prose and Poetical Works of Edgar Allan Poe. FOP, 10 Apr. 1852, 77-78
The Poetical Works of William
Wordsworth.—Moxon (a review of). FOP, 17 Apr. 1852, 86.
of Rouget de Lisle. FOP, 24 Apr. 1852, 89-90.
and the French Refugees. FOP, 24 Apr. 1852, 90-91.
Working Tailors' Association, London. A Chapter towards the Associative
History. SOF, 24 Apr. 1852, 5. 8 May, 5. 22 May, 5. 5 Jun., 6.
Poetical Works. SOF, 22 May 1852, 3. Rienzi, the Roman Tribune. SOF, 22
May 1852, 3.
Visit to the Royal Academy. SOF, 29 May 1852, 2.
Position, Principles, and Prospects. SOF, 5 Jun. 1852, 4.
by William Whitmore. SOF, 7 Aug. 1852, 3.
Tom's Cabin. SOF, 14 Aug. 1852, 13-14.
Kossuth. SOF, 21 Aug. 1852, 30; 28 Aug. 1852, 46.
and Italy. NT, I, 12, 1854, 402-5.
Part the First. (Review). ER, Oct. 1854, 424-35.
Hood, Poet and Punster. HI, 4, 1855, 320-28.
Poetry of Alfred Tennyson. HI, 5, 1855, 1-14.
New Volume of Poems. EN, July 1855.
Manchester Art-Treasures Exhibition. W, 13 May 1857, 2. 16 May, 2. 20
May, 2. 26 May, 2. 6 Jun., 2. 13 Jun., 2. 20 Jun., 2. 24 Jun., 2. 18
Jul., 2. 30 Sep., 2.
- The Spasmodists. NBR, 28, (Feb. 1858), 231-50. Attributed to Coventry
Patmore in Wellesley Index, 1, 682, 503, but corrected in 3, 998, 503.
Confirmed also in a letter from Massey to William Sterling.
Humour. NBR, 33, (Nov. 1860), 461-85.
Poems and Plays of Robert Browning. NBR, 34, (May 1861), 350-74.
of Young Ireland. NBR, 35, (Nov. 1861), 415-44.
Poems and Other Works of Mrs Browning. NBR, 36, (May 1862), 514-34.
De Quincey - Grave and Gay. NBR, 39, (Aug. 1863), 62-86.
and Writings of Thomas Hood. QR, 114, (Oct. 1863), 332-68.
Englanders and the 'Old Home'. QR, 115, (Jan. 1864), 42-68.
and his Sonnets. QR, 115, (Apl. 1864), 431-81.
Poems. QR, 118, (Jul. 1865), 77-105.
Humour. QR, 122, (Jan. 1867), 212-37.
Lamb. FM, 75, (May 1867), 657-72.
I became a Spiritualist. BL, 34, (10 Jan. 1874), 1, 8. (A similar
article appears in the Denver
Mirror, 25 January 1874).
Enquiry Concerning a Spirit-World. BL, 34, (17 Jan. 1874), 1-2.
Birth, Life, Miracles and Character of Jesus Christ ... BL, 34, (24 Jan.
Coming Religion. BL, 35, (16 May 1874), 1, 8.
Punishment and Orthodox Theology. SN, 5 Jun. 1874, 265-6.
of Samaria. MD, 18, (Apr. 1887), 225-27.
Are the Teachings Ascribed to
Jesus Contradictory? L, vol. I., Oct. 1887, 135.
Covenanting. L, vol. I., Nov. 1887, 216-225.
Name and Nature of the Christ. AA, 1888, 9-14.
and Totemism as Primitive Modes of Representation. NR, Oct. 1888,
238-59. Reprinted with an introduction by Rey Bowen (London,
Karpatenland Press, 1995).
CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF ARTICLES ON GERALD MASSEY OR HIS
Gerald Massey. Eliza Cook's Journal, (Samuel Smiles) no.
102 (12 Apr. 1851), 372-74.
Massey, the Buckinghamshire Poet. The Worthies of the Working Classes
and their Friends, ed. S. Bannister, (London, Newby, 1854), 24-29.
Third Gallery of Portraits, George Gilfillan, (Edinburgh, Hogg,
Massey. Men of the Time (London, Kent, 1857 ed.) 515-17.
Massey. Brief Biographies, Samuel Smiles, (Boston, Osgood,
Massey. Jersey Independant, 25 Nov. 1862.
Massey and his Writings. Meliora, V, 17, 1863, 2-63.
Massey. Working Man, I, 17, (28 Apr. 1866), 257-8.
Self-Made Men of Our Time: Gerald Massey. Chimney Corner, 11 Feb.
The Langham Place
lectures: The Medium and Daybreak, 29 March; 17 May; 24 May;
31 May; 7 June 1872.
Gerald Massey at Halifax:
The Medium and Daybreak, 3
Massey. The Illustrated Review, 4 Sep. 1873, 207-9.
Massey. Medium and Daybreak, 10 Oct. 1873, 449-52.
Massey. Banner of Light, (Boston) 1 Nov. 1873, 4.
Gerald Massey in America:
The Medium and Daybreak, 19 Dec. 1873.
Massey. Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated, (New York)
58, (Jan. 1874) 6-11.
Conversion: reported in the Denver Mirror, 25 Jan. 1874.
Massey in Chicago : the Chicago Daily Times, Feb. 17,
Critical Dictionary (London, Trubner, 1877), 2, 1239.
Book of the Beginnings. The Scotsman, 21 May, 1881.
A Preface to, with Extracts from, a Book of the Beginnings.
Journal of Science, Vol. 3, 1881.
The Natural Genesis,
vol. I. Quarterly Journal of Science, Vol. V. July 1883.
Massey. House and Home, 5, (26 May 1882), 157-8.
Who is Gerald Massey? Medium and Daybreak, 12 Oct. 1883, 649-50.
Recollections of Gerald
Massey: Brooklyn Eagle, 18 Nov. 1883.
Brooklyn Eagle, 6 Jan. 1884.
Gerald Massey in
Australia: Medium and Daybreak, 16 Jan. 1885.
Massey. His Life and Work. Medium and Daybreak, 19 Mar. 1886,
Parallels between the New Testament and Egyptian Mythology. Religio-Philosophical
Journal, (Chicago) 16 Oct. 1886, 8.
Wasted Life. Christian Leader, 18 Nov. 1886, 7 10.
Egyptologists and Gerald
Massey: The Medium and Daybreak, 1 Apr. 1887.
Who Have Conquered. XII. Gerald Massey. Wit and Wisdom, 4 Aug.
The Secret Drama of Shakspeare's
Sonnets. A limited edition of 100 copies for subscribers.
Printed by Richard Clay & Sons, London, 1888.
A Revived Poet. The Saturday Review, Aug. 31, 1889.
Lyrical Life: Poems Old and New. The Athenæum, Nov. 9, 1889.
Massey on Shakespeare. The Medium And Daybreak, Feb. 5, 1892.
Massey. The Arena, (Boston) vols 8, 9, Dec. 1893 - Jan. 1894. A
series of three articles by B. O. Flower. Later published as
Massey: Poet, Prophet and Mystic (Boston, Arena Publishing Co.
Massey. (Amos Waters) Open Court, (Chicago) 10, 1896, 4789-90.
Gerald Massey at Home. The Bookman, Nov. 1897, 33-36.
Massey. (V. Plarr) Men and Women of the Time, (London, Routledge,
Poetry of Mr. Gerald Massey, Studies in Poetry and Criticism,
John Churton Collins (London, Bell, 1905), 142-66.
Silent Singer. (James Milne) Book Monthly, July 1905, 703-6.
and Thinker. (James Milne) Book Monthly, 4, 1907, 845-51.
Massey in His Last Fight:
The Chicago Daily Tribune, 23 June 1907.
The Times, 30 Oct. 1907, 8. Daily News, 31 Oct. 1907, 4. The
Athenæum, 2 Nov. 1907, 553. Norwood News, 2 Nov. 1907, 8
(see also 9 Nov. 1907, 3), Two Worlds, 8 Nov. 1907, 558-9.
Egyptologist and Spiritualist: (Samuel Keyworth; Archie Glendinning)
The Two Worlds, 8 Nov. 1907.
Appreciation of Gerald Massey. Literary Guide and Rationalist Review,
1 Dec. 1907, 183 and 187-8.
Gerald Massey ... Review of Reviews, 36, (Dec. 1907), 576-7.
Passing of Gerald Massey, the Veteran Bard of Freedom. Arena,
(Boston) 39, (Feb. 1908), 214-17.
Late Gerald Massey: (W.H. Simpson) Two Worlds, 18 Dec. 1908.
Max Müller and Gerald Massey: (W.H. Simpson) Two Worlds, 18 Jun.
of National Biography (Sir Sidney Lee), 2nd. supp. (London, Smith,
Elder, 1912), 580-82.
Massey. (Dudley Wright) Open Court, (Chicago) 38, (Aug.
Poet of Yester-year. Pages in Waiting, James Milne, (London,
Bodley Head, 1926), 23-36.
Poetry in the later 19th Century. B. I. Evans (London, Methuen,
Massey and America. Charles Hawley. Church History, VIII, 4,
Massey. Print and the People, L. James (London, Peregrine, 1978),
191-94. Reprint of the article in Eliza Cook's Journal, 1851.
Dictionary of Modern British Radicals J. O. Baylen (Sussex,
Harvester Press, 1984) 2, 336-39.
of Literary Biography (Tirthankar Bose), 32, 214-17.
Massey 1828-1907. More Tring Personalities. Wendy Austin (Tring,
ADAMS, W. E., Memoirs of a Social Atom
2 vols. (London, Hutcheson, 1903); 'Tyrannicide:
is it justifiable?' (London, Edward Truelove, 1858)
Richard Hinckley, Star Names. Their Lore and Meaning (New York,
Dover, 1963 ed.).
Narrative of the Indian Revolt (London, Vickers, 1858).
The Primrose League (London, Hatchards, 1887).
Isobel, Victorian Scrutinies. Reviews of Poetry 1830-1870
(London, Athlone Press, 1972).
P. M., Introduction to Working Class Literature in Great Britain.
Part I, Poetry (Berlin, VEB Kongress und Werbedruck Oberlungwitz,
Wendy. 'Gerald Massey 1828-1907' More Tring Personalities,
(Tring, 2003); Tring Silk Mill (Tring, 2008).
William, George Eliot - G.H. Lewes Library Catalogue (New York,
John R., The Bible. Faith and Evidence (London, British Museum
Robert, GILBERT, Adrian, The Orion Mystery (London, Heinemann,
V., Little Gaddesden (London, Faber, 1949).
Tony, (ed.) Writings on the Wall. A Radical and Socialist Anthology
1215-1984 (London, Faber, 1984).
William, Sheen and Shade: Lyrical Poems
(London, Hall &
F. G., BLACK, R. M., (eds.) The Harney Papers (Assen, Van Gorcum,
David, (ed.) Men of the Time (London, Kent, 1857 ed.).
Hypatia Bradlaugh, Charles Bradlaugh. A record of his life and work
2 vols. (London, Unwin, 1908 ed.).
Amalendu, Chroniclers of Life. Studies in early Victorian Poetry
(New York, Orient Longmans, 1962).
C., Phases of Opinion (London, Longmans, 1884).
Richard, Parapsychology. The Controversial Science (London,
Robert, The Fleshly School of Poetry (London, Strahan, 1872).
A Look Around Literature (London, Ward & Downey, 1887).
David, Contemporary Literary Theory and the Reading of Poetry
(Melbourne, Macmillan, 1991).
John, (ed.) Useful Toil. Autobiographies of Working People from the
1820s to the 1920s (London, Allen Lane, 1974).
Samuel, Shakespeare's Sonnets, Reconsidered (London, Fifield,
Ron, (ed.) The Other Gospels. Non-canonical Gospel texts
(Cambridge, Lutterworth, 1982).
Edwin, Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population
of Gt. Britain. 1842 (Edinburgh, U.P. 1965).
T., Origin and History of Christian Socialism I848-54 in Acta
Theologica Danica, 3, (Aarhus, 1962).
Albert, Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man (London, Allen, 2nd.
The Origin and Evolution of Religion (London, Allen & Unwin,
1924. Kila, MT., Kessinger, n.d. ).
and Evolution of the Primitive Man (London, Allen, 1912).
and Evolution of the Human Race (London, Allen, 1921).
R. T. Rundle, Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt (London, Thames
& Hudson, 1959).
John Churton, Studies in Poetry and Criticism (London, Bell,
Brenda, Victorian Visionaries (London, Constable, 1982).
Sidney, Landor (London, Macmillan, 1881).
Joe, The Case of the Cottingley Fairies (London, Hale, 1990).
Roger, Phrenology in the British Isles: an annotated, historical
biobibliography and index (New Jersey, Scarecrow Press, 1989).
R., Reminiscences of Robert Crowe the Octogenarian Tailor (New
York, n.p., n.d. ).
J, History of Hertfordshire (Wakefield, E.P. Publishing, 1972
Charles, Heterodox London: Phases of Freethought in the Metropolis
2 vols. (London, Tinsley Bros., 1874)
Ignatius; The Great Cryptogram: Francis Bacon's cipher in the
so-called Shakespeare plays (London, Sampson Low, 1888).
Arthur C., The History of Spiritualism 2 vols. (New York, Doran,
John, (ed.) Critics of the Bible (Cambridge U.P., 1989).
Alan, (ed.) The Flood Myth (California U.P., 1988).
Charles, Memoir sur l'origine des constellations et sur l'explication
de la fable, par le moyen de l'astronomie (Paris, Desaint, 1781).
Planches de l'origin de tous les cultes (Paris, Agasse, 1795).
Harry, The Mediumship of Jack Webber (London, Spiritual Healing
Sanctuary Trust, 1962).
Robert, WISE, Michael, The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered (Shaftesbury,
Element Books, 1992).
George, Felix Holt, The Radical (rep. London, Penguin, 1987).
T. S., On Poetry and Poets (London, Faber and Faber, 1957).
Brian M., The Journey from Eden (London, Thames and Hudson,
H. U., Chartism and the Churches. Studies in History, Economics and
Public Law, vol. 73 (Columbia U.P., 1916).
Charles, Echoes of the Old Darkland (Decatur, Khenti, 1993)
Star of Deep Beginnings (Decatur, Khenti, 1998)
Israel., SILBERMAN, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed. Archaeology's
new vision of ancient Israel and the origin of its sacred texts (New
York, Free Press, 2001).
B. O., Gerald Massey: Poet, Prophet and Mystic (Boston, Arena
Robin Lane, The Unauthorized Version (London, Viking, 1991).
R. G., History of the Chartist Movement (rep. New York, Kelley,
A., Cornell, A. D., Poltergeists (London, Routledge and Kegan
Wilma, Biologist Philosopher. A study of the life and writings of
Alfred Russel Wallace (London, Abelard-Schuman, 1964).
George, A Third Gallery of Portraits (Edinburgh, Hogg, 1854).
John, Ascent to Civilization (London, Galley Press, 1984).
E., WISE, T., The Letters of Algernon Charles Swinburne 2 vols.
(London, Heinemann, 1918).
Laszlo, Children of Straw (Buckingham, Barracuda, 1988).
Lee, George Jacob Holyoake (Philadelphia, Porcupine Press, 1976).
C., Jesus (London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1935).
Gordon S., The George Eliot Letters (Oxford U.P., 1954 etc.).
George Eliot and John Chapman (London, Archon, 1969 ed.).
Charles, 'Gerald Massey in America' in American Church History
Rene, The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982. A History
(London, Macdonald, 1982).
Adolphe, Biography of Charles Bradlaugh (London, Freethought
E.W., Solomon's New Men. The emergence of ancient Israel as a
national state (London, Thames and Hudson, 1974).
Frances, Phrenology. A Study of Mind (London, Fowler, 1970).
F. W., Early Life and Letters of John Morley (London, Macmillan,
George Jacob, Bygones Worth Remembering 2 vols. (London, Fisher
Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life (London, Fisher Unwin, 1893).
D. D., Incidents in my Life lst. and 2nd. series (London,
Mme. D., D. D. Home. His life and work. (London, Trubner, 1888).
L., Mr. W. H. (London, Hart-Davis, 1964).
Anne, Travels into the Poor Man's Country. The work of Henry Mayhew
(Univ. of Georgia Press, 1977).
Jeffrey, In Search of the Dead. A scientific investigation of
evidence for life after death (London, BBC Books, 1992).
E., (E. Jolley), The Life and Letters of Sydney Dobell (London,
Smith, Elder, 1878).
Louis, (ed.) Print and the People 1819-1851 (London, Peregrine
Books ed., 1978).
A., ROBEY, D., (eds.) Modern Literary Theory (London, Batsford,
T. Percy, (W. E. Aytoun), Firmilian: The Student of Badajoz. A
Spasmodic Tragedy (Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1854).
Bolton, The Life of Mazzini (London, Dent, 1912).
Charles, Alton Locke, Tailor and Poet (London, Chapman &
Hall, 1850 etc. Oxford U.P., 1987). Prefatory Memoir by Thomas
Hughes in 1876 ed. (London, Macmillan).
G. Wilson, Shakespeare and Religion (London, Routledge and Kegan
The Mutual Flame (London, Methuen, 1973).
W. F. Jackson, Elysion. On Ancient Greek and Roman beliefs concerning
life after death (London, Rider, 1970).
F., Shakespeare's Southampton-Sonette (Leipzig, Englemann, 1872).
Alvin Boyd, The Lost Light. An Interpretation of Ancient Scriptures
(New Jersey, Academy Press, 1940).
Bentley, The Gnostic Scriptures (London, SCM, 1987).
R., LEWIN, R., Origins Reconsidered (London, Little, Brown,
J. B., The Aftermath (London, Reeves & Turner, 1892).
Roger, Human Evolution (London, Blackwell, 1989 ed.).
Philip, Uniquely Human (Cambridge, Harvard U.P., 1990).
B. London Coffee Houses (London, Allen & Unwin, 1963).
J. Norman, Dawn of Astronomy (London, Cassell, 1894).
J. M., The Christian Socialist Movement, 1850-4. Lecturing and
Literary work. Cambridge Univ. Lib. Add. 7450/5. Published in
Murray, A.D. (ed.) John Ludlow. The Autobiography of a
Christian Socialist (London, Cass, 1981).
JONES, Lloyd, The Progress of the Working Class 1832-1867
(London, Strahan, 1867).
Joseph, Spiritualism (London, Fisher Unwin, 1920).
A., That Tring Air (Priv. print. 1940).
Burton L., The Lost Gospel. The Book of Q and Christian Origins (Shaftesbury,
Element Books, 1993).
Thomas, Autobiography of Samuel Smiles (London, Murray, 1905).
Brian, The Poorhouse Fugitives (Manchester, Carcanet, 1987).
D., A Treasury of English Sonnets (London, Blackwood, 1880).
N. C., John Malcolm Ludlow (Cambridge U.P., 1963).
Thomas [Gerald], Original Poems and Chansons (Tring, Garlick.
1847). Privately printed by subscription, approx. 250 copies. No copy
traced, but see a collection of early
Voices of Freedom and Lyrics of Love (London, Watson, 1851).
Univ. of Michigan. Inscribed copy to George Julian Harney in Vanderbilt
A Song of Welcome to Louis Kossuth Published as a Broadsheet
(London, John James Bezer, n.d.). Newcastle City Library. As cited in
the preface to Plummer, J., Songs of Labour (London, 1860).
The Ballad of Babe Christabel with Other Lyrical Poems (London,
Bogue, 1854. 1st Feb.; 2nd April; 3rd - with preface - June; 4th
enlarged, Nov.; 5th enlarged, Feb 1855. 3rd ed. (with some additional
material and errata) published as Poems and Ballads (New York, Derby,
War Waits (London, Bogue, 1855). lst., 2nd. eds.
Craigcrook Castle, and Other Poems (London, Bogue, 1856). lst.,
2nd. ed. rev.
The Poetical Works of Gerald Massey (Boston, Ticknor and Fields,
1857). Reprinted from Derby's ed. - with errata - of Poems and
Ballads and including Craigcrook Castle, and Other Poems 1st.
Robert Burns: a Song, and Other Lyrics (London, Kent, 1859), lst.,
2nd. eds. Signed copy in Newberry Library, Chicago. The poem 'Robert
Burns: a Song' reprinted in Anderson, G., Finlay, J., The Burns
Centenary Poems (Glasgow, Murray, 1859).
Poems by Gerald Massey (Boston, Ticknor and Fields, 1860). A new
enlarged ed. of his Poetical Works, Boston, 1857.
Havelock's March, and Other Poems (London, Trubner, 1861).
Author's annotated copy deposited in the Gerald Massey Collection.
The Poetical Works of Gerald Massey (London, Routledge, 1861,
The Poems of Gerald Massey (Boston, Ticknor and Fields, 1863).
3rd. ed. 1864. 5th., 1865. 6th., 1866. 9th., 1875.
Shakspeare's Sonnets never before interpreted: His Private Friends
Identified: Together with a Recovered Likeness of Himself (London,
Longmans, Green, 1866. New York, AMS Press, 1973 etc. 2nd. ed.
1872 enlarged with a supplemental chapter and reprinted privately (100
copies) as The Secret Drama of Shakspeare's Sonnets Unfolded, with
the Characters Identified. Reprinted London, Watts, 1890. New York,
AMS Press, 1973 etc.
In Memoriam. Privately printed, n.d. . Inscribed copies (1)
'Eva Byrn, with Gerald Massey's love' (2) 'given To the Author by her
deeply obliged Marian Alford', bound in vellum with her coat of Arms, in
colour, deposited in the Gerald Massey Collection. Signed copy in Yale University Library.
— Carmen Nuptiale. Privately printed, n.d. . Inscribed copy
'To my Wife, with my love on my Birthday 1869. Gerald Massey' deposited
in the Gerald Massey Collection. Author's
annotated copy in Harvard University Library.
A Tale of Eternity, and Other Poems (London, Strahan, 1870,
private - dedicated to the Lady Marian Alford - and ordinary eds.
Boston, Fields and Osgood). Private inscribed copy to 'William Unwin
with kind regards from Gerald Massey' deposited in the
Concerning Spiritualism (London, Burns, 1871. Kila, Kessinger,
A Preface to, with Extracts from, A Book of The Beginnings'
(London, Williams and Norgate, 1881).
A Book of The Beginnings 2 vols. (London, Williams and Norgate,
1881. New York, University Books, 1974. London, Zwan Publishing, 1991.
New York, Life Sciences, 1991. ECA Assoc. African Heritage Classical
Research Studies, 1991. Gordon Press, 1991. Kessinger, 1992). Ca.,
Health Research, (spiral), n.d. etc.)
Garibaldi: A Group of Reprinted Poems (London, J. Pearce, 1882).
British Library Pressmark YA.1987.a.7095.
The Natural Genesis 2 vols. (London, Williams and Norgate, 1883.
New York, Weiser, 1974, 1976. New York, ECA Assoc. (African Studies),
1991. Kessinger, 1992. Ca., Health Research (spiral) n.d. etc.)
Election Lyrics (London, Burns, n.d. ). Bishopsgate
Institute. Pressmark P329.942.39(33). Three separately (Bristol
University Library) as: The Government of Ireland. Gerald Massey to
John Bright. [poem] 2 pages, leaflet no 74, n.d. (c. 1886); The
Government of Ireland. 'A Leader' by Gerald Massey [poem] 'The
League of Pat and Hodge' Leaflet no 65, n.d. (1886); Home Rule Rhymes
and Labour Lyrics, 24 pages, n.d. (c. 1891)
Lectures. A series of 10 lectures, privately printed, 1887.
(London, Watts, 1891. New York, Weiser, 1976. Largs, Banton Press, 1990.
New York, ECA Assoc. (African Studies), 1991. Kessinger, 1992 etc.)
Reprinted separately as below:
(1) The Historical Jesus and the Mythical Christ (Springfield,
Star Publishing, 1886, - inc. part 4 of The Natural Genesis.
Glasgow, E. Nisbet, 1889. San Francisco, Le Caze, 1896, as Le
Historique Jesus. Pioneer Press for the Secular Soc. Ltd., London,
1921, 1936. Hastings, Soc. of Metaphysicians, 1986. As ... Natural
Genesis and Typology of Equinoctial Christianity Edmonds, Holmes
Publishing, 1990 etc.)
(2) Paul, the Gnostic Opponent of Peter, not an Apostle of Historic
Christianity (Glasgow, Nisbet, 1889. London, Watts, 1893).
(3) The Logia of The Lord, or Pre-historic Sayings attributed to
Jesus Christ (London, Watts, 1897).
(4) Gnostic and Historic Christianity (Edmonds, Holmes
(5) The Hebrew and Other Creations Fundamentally Explained
(Edmonds, Holmes Publishing, 1985 etc.)
(6) The Devil of Darkness in the Light of Evolution
(7) Luniolatry, Ancient and Modern (Edmonds, Holmes Publishing,
1990, as Moon Worship: Ancient and Modern).
(8) Man in search of his Soul during fifty thousand years, and how he
found it (London, Watts, 1893).
(9) The Seven Souls of Man and their Culmination in Christ
(10) The Coming Religion
The Vilification of Shakspeare and Bacon.
A Chapter from the Secret
Drama of Shakspeare's Sonnets (London, Kegan Paul, Trench, 1888)
The Secret Drama of Shakspeare's Sonnets (London, Kegan Paul,
Trench, and private ed. 1888. London, Watts, 1890). Presentation copy to
George Julian Harney, 'With all good wishes to George Julian Harney who
probably has forgotten that he was the first to print, quote, and praise
the Verse of Gerald Massey.' Quoted in The Harney Papers,
footnote to letter no. 214.
My Lyrical Life Vol. 1, First Series;
Vol. 2, Second Series
(London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. Boston, Colby and Rich, 1889,
1890. New ed. with additional matter, London, Watts, 1896). Inscribed
copy to Massey's Grand-daughter - Vol. 2, Kegan Paul:
'Dear Helen, here is many a screed
That you may one day like to read,
When "Gumm" has gone upon
In search of some continual day.
Grand-daughter when young could not pronounce 'Grandfather'. 'Gumm'
was the nearest she could get. Deposited in the
Collection. Inscribed copy to George Julian Harney in Vanderbilt University Library: 'George Julian Harney a
Birthday Gift with Kindest remembrances from Gerald Massey.'
Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World, A Work of Reclamation and
Restitution in 12 books 2 vols. (London, T. Fisher Unwin, 500
copies, 1907. New York, Weiser, London, Stuart and Watkins, 1970. ECA
Assoc. (African Studies) 1991. Gordon Press, 1992. Baltimore,
Black Classic, 1992 . Kegan Paul, 2004 etc.)
4 reprinted as The Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Mysteries of
Amenta (Los Angeles, Inner Powers Soc., 1958, Ca., Health Research
(spiral) n.d., and in part as The World's Great Year pp. 580628
of Ancient Egypt vol. 2 - Edmonds, Holmes Publishing, 1988. Parts
1-5 ed. by A. Obaba, African Islam Miss. Pubns., n.d. etc.)
Frederick, The Life of Frederick Denison Maurice (London,
Macmillan, 1884 ed.).
Joseph, Spiritualism (London, Fisher Unwin, 1920).
J, Mind Trek (Charlottsville, Hampton Roads, 1993).
Marvin, (ed.) The Ancient Mysteries. A sourcebook (San Francisco,
Harper Collins, 1987).
A. H., The Poets and Poetry of the Century (London, Hutchinson,
James, Pages in Waiting (London, Bodley Head, 1926).
Arthur C., The First Five Lives of Annie Besant (London,
Janet, The Other World. Spiritualism and Psychical Research in
England, 1850-1914 (CUP, 1985).
E. A., Dickens' All the Year Round: Descriptive Index and Contributor
List (New York, Whitston, 1984).
Elaine, The Gnostic Gospels (London, Weidenfeld & Nicholson,
1980. Penguin ed. 1990).
Ronald, The Table-Rappers (London, Michael Joseph, 1972).
Cyril, Photographing the Spirit World (London, Aquarian Press
1988. Patrick Stephens, 1983, as Beyond the Spectrum).
John, Songs of Labour (Edinburgh, Tweedie, 1860).
Katherine, Through a Glass Darkly. Spiritualism in the Browning
Circle (rep. New York, Octagon, 1972).
J. G.; RHINE, J. B. et. al., Extra-sensory Perception after Sixty
Years, A critical appraisal of the research in extra-sensory perception
(Boston, Humphries, 1966).
RADIN, Dean, The Conscious Universe. The scientific truth of Psychic
Phenomena (Harper, San Francisco), 1997.
— Entangled Minds: extrasensory experiences in a
quantum reality (New York, Paraview) 2006.
C. E. Christian Socialism 1848-1854 (London, Macmillan 1920, rep.
from the Committee on the Bill to regulate the Labour of Children in the
Mills and Factories of the United Kingdom with the Minutes of Evidence.
of The Dialectical Society on Spiritualism (London, Longman, 1871.
Burns, abridged ed. 1873).
G. W. M., The Mysteries of London. 6 vols. (London, Vickers,
James, Spiritualism: The Open Door to the Unseen Universe
(London, Fowler, 1908).
Kinley, The King, the Press and the People. A study of Edward VII
(London, Barrie & Jenkins, 1975).
D. Scott, The Poltergeist Experience (New York, Penguin, 1979.
London, Aquarian Press, 1990).
A. L., Shakespeare's Southampton (London, Macmillan, 1965).
Merritt, A Guide to the World's Languages, Vol. I, Classification
(London, Arnold, 1987, 1991); The Origin of Language. Tracing the
Evolution of the Mother Tongue (New York, John Wiley, 1994).
H. F., Evidence of Personal Survival from Cross Correspondences
(London, Bell, 1938).
Georgio de, DECHEND, Hertha von, Hamlet's Mill. An essay on myth and
the frame of time (Boston, Gambit, 1969).
Jane, The Death of Gods in Ancient Egypt (London, Penguin, 1992).
John, Ernest Jones: Chartist (London, Lawrence and Wishart,
Peter, An Anthology of Chartist Poetry (London, Assoc. U.P.,
A. R., The Chartist Challenge. A Portrait of George Julian Harney (London,
Baron von, Phenomena of Materialisation (London, Kegan Paul,
Trench, Trubner, 1923).
Ulrike, The Poetry of the Chartist Movement: a Literary and
Historical Study (Studies in Social History, vol. XIII, Kluwer,
E.S., 'Kubla Khan' and the Fall of Jerusalem. The mythological school
in Biblical criticism and secular literature 1770-1880 (Cambridge
Joanne, Politics and Reviewers: The Edinburgh and the Quarterly
(Leicester, U.P., 1989).
WOLFF, M., The Victorian Press: Samplings and Soundings
(Leicester, U.P., 1982).
George Sydney, Historic Fancies (London, Colburn, 1844).
John E., (ed.), Victorian Poetry. A Collection of Essays from the
Period (New York, Garland, 1986).
D. F., The Life of Jesus Critically Examined Trans. George Eliot
(London, SCM Press, 1973 ed.).
Barbara, Jesus the Man (London, Doubleday, 1992).
Dorothy, The Chartists (London, Temple Smith, 1984).
B. B., The Writings of Gerald Massey (Thesis HU90.4283. Harvard
G., The Dead Sea Scrolls in English (London, Pelican, 1962.
Martha, The Industrial Muse (London, Croom Helm, 1974).
David, (ed.), Testaments of Radicalism (London, Europa, 1977).
A., Letters of John Stuart Blackie (London, Blackwood, 1909).
Gerhard, Shadow Matter and Psychic Phenomena (Oxford, Mandrake,
Mark A., William Edmondstoune Aytoun and the Spasmodic Controversy
(Yale U.P., 1968).
John Anthony, Serpent in the Sky (Wheaton, Ill., Quest, 1993).
Frederic, The Life of W. T. Stead (London, Cape, 1925).
Reginald, The Life of the Right Reverend Samuel Wilberforce D.D.
3 vols. (London, Murray, 1881).
Blanche, George Eliot (New York, Macmillan, 1936).
Lucien, Life of the First Marquess of Ripon 2 vols. (London,
Thomas D, The Myth of Replacement. Stars, Gods, and Order in
the Universe (Univ. Arizona Press 1991).
RESEARCH MATERIAL HOLDING.
Mss and other items as listed below, together with some ephemera, have
been deposited at the Local History Unit, Upper Norwood Library, London.
These are held in the Library's 'Gerald Massey Collection' that includes
all the items specifically mentioned in my biography.
i. Autograph letter (4 pages) from Massey to Hepworth
Dixon (Chief editor of the Athenæum journal) undated (c. late 1857).
Refers to reviews and examples of plagiarisms by the poet Alexander
Smith. His attention "was all the more called to Smith's case from the
fact that about a doz of my best things from my (1851) shilling Vol. [Voices
of Freedom and Lyrics of Love] appeared in his book in 53 [Poems].
So that when I reprinted in 1854 it would look as tho' I had stolen from
him – indeed friends have mentioned those very plagiarisms as mine – not
thinking that I had previously printed..." He mentions that he was also
accused of plagiarism in the Idler journal.
ii. Autograph letter (6 pages) and envelope from Massey to James T.
Fields, editor of Ticknor & Fields, publishers, Boston USA. Dated
November 4th. No year, but most probably 1859. He discusses his
requirements for a revised book, almost certainly his Poems by
Gerald Massey that was published in 1860.
iii. Autograph Letter (1 page) dated 11 November  from Massey to
W. H. Wills, Charles Dickens' assistant. He states that he is unable to
attempt anything for the Christmas number [presumably Dickens' All
the Year Round magazine], but would send a short story written by an
acquaintance, James Evans of Haverfordwest.
iv. Autograph letter (2 pages) from Massey to Dr Hyde Clarke (undated,
c. 1883). He refers to his bronchitis, and to the work Dr Clarke is
undertaking on Hittite seals. Also some correlation with Genesis,
chapter 10. He mentions a list of names that Dr Clarke has sent him.
v. Manuscript poem ‘The Golden Wedding-ring’ (2 pages). Dated probably
to 1854. Added notes of purchase by J.B. Aldrich dated 1855, and William
Winter, 1856. The end quarter of the second page is removed, presumably
for Massey's autograph.
vi. A Carte de Visite. Obverse: A photograph of the published engraving
of Massey. Reverse: Name and address of a printer of Cartes de Visites
in New York. Probably one of a number made for the introduction of his
first American tour.
vii. A Carte de Visite. Obverse: A photograph of Massey taken in Boston.
Reverse: 1. Name and address of the photographic firm. 2. Name in hand
stamp. Can be dated between late December 1873 and early January 1874.
viii. A Print of Gerald Massey (number 6) from a set of 40 prints
entitled The Arena Gallery of Eminent Thinkers issued by the Arena
Publishing Co. Boston, c. 1890.
ix. Autograph letter (3 pages) from Massey to Samuel Carter Hall giving
a reference in respect of Byron Webber, a minor author, who was desirous
of writing for Hall's weekly journal Social Notes. No date, but
x. Autograph letter (3 pages) with envelope (dated November 30 1858)
from Massey to William Cox Bennett (1820-1895) poet and author, putting
off a lecture until the following April due to a full schedule of
engagements. Massey had removed from Scotland in June, and was very
short of money causing him to take every opportunity to book lecture
tours. He refers to bringing a parcel of Bennett's books when passing
through London in December, and asks if Bennett could loan him anything
for his ‘National Ballads’ (the title of a series of lectures Massey had
prepared for the following year. Massey's reference to ‘Bowring's
Translations’ refers to Sir John Bowring (1792-1872) author and
translator etc. who wrote Ancient Poetry and Romances of Spain
(1824), Specimens of the Russian Poets (1827), Poetry of the
Magyars (1830), etc. He enquires re Bennett's book and why it has
not been advertised. This probably refers to Bennett's Songs by a
Song-writer that was published by Chapman & Hall in 1859. Massey
reviewed it in the Athenæum of April 9, 1859.
xi. Autograph letter (1 page) undated (1861-1863), from Massey to John
Watkins stating that he could not get up that day, but would be with him
xii. Untitled signed manuscript poem in two verses dated 1884.
xiii. My Lyrical Life, 2 vols, 1896, 1889. Leather bound as one.
Author's copy with manuscript corrections.
xiv. Autograph letter (3 pages) from Massey to an unknown addressee.
Dated Septr. 8. [almost certainly 1864 when he was living at
Rickmansworth.] Letter head of 32 Ludgate Hill with incomplete printed
date of 186 . . . Massey refers to the addressee whom he had asked to
send a portrait [?literary or photographic] to his mother. A note sent
from the addressee to Massey’s wife (Rosina) had been misconstrued, and
she had sent all his portraits away, leaving none for Alexander Smith,
Sydney Dobell or others. Massey requested the addressee to write to him
at Rickmansworth, ‘pitching in to me’ for not writing to him and for not
sending the letters he promised. He assumed that Rosina would read it.
He also mentioned that some of the letters he had promised, she had
destroyed. Rosina was having acute mental problems at that time. See the
references in Chapter 5 where Rosina had destroyed a quantity of his
papers and other material, and it probably refers to that episode.
xv. A two page ms letter by Massey. No address, addressee or date.
Thanking the recipient, and asking about his poem 'Protoplasm.' Also
asking if he would take a response from an article on Spiritualism in
the Quarterly, for inclusion in the Contemporary. [The
Quarterly article not traced.] Alexander Strahan's Contemporary
Review ran from 1866-1882. Purchased by Isbister Ltd in 1874. Became
Strahan & Co in 1876-1882 then repurchased by Isbister. Massey's poem
'Protoplasm' was published in his My Lyrical Life, part I, 1889.
xvi. Autograph letter (3 pages) and envelope from Massey to Robert S.
Watson at Newcastle on Tyne. Massey’s address given as 12 Henderson Row,
Edinburgh, and the letter dated 20 November 1857. Massey asks regarding
an article in the Chronicle, and mentions 6 forthcoming lecture
engagements in Newcastle and Sunderland for £40. He sends his regards to
Watson’s family and both of their Quaker friends. He also sends Watson a
copy of his last book – corrected edition. This would be his
Craigcrook Castle and Other Poems (Bogue, 2nd ed. Nov. 1856). He
mentions also that his wife, Rosina, was very poorly. As a postscript,
apparently referring to an intruder Watson had mentioned previously, he
makes a pun, asking “What was that fellow going to do in your bedroom?
Going to Rob. S. Watson, of course.”
xvii. Manuscript of three single stanzas from different poems (1 page)
on Ward’s Hurst, Ringshall, Hemel Hempstead headed notepaper and dated
(in a different hand) March 27th 1869. The stanzas were published with
slight alterations in My Lyrical Life, and are in his poems ‘Via
Crucis via Lucis’, ‘In Memoriam’ and ‘Albert the Good’. Why the stanzas
were separated from the poems is not known.
xviii. Autograph letter of 2 pages dated August 2  New Southgate,
London, to Alfred Bull concerning his forthcoming 3rd tour of America [1
September]. His children had all suffered badly from measles, and he
hoped that his health would hold out during the winter. He was aiming to
sell some of his recent published lectures , and obtain
subscribers for his new book on Shakspeare's Sonnets.
Single page autograph letter with letterhead of the Edinburgh
News Office when Massey was an Editor. Dated October 23 1855. States
that Massey would be happy to write an article in Hogg's Instructor
on Hayes' Ballads of Ireland. No addressee, but probably the
proprietors of Hogg's Instructor who were publishing articles of
his. Massey gives his personal address as 12 Henderson Row. [Edward
Hayes, The \Ballads of \Ireland, 2 vols 1855.]
xx. Single page autograph letter folded with half black edged
(mourning). Ward's Hurst, March 2nd. No year, but probably 1867
following the death of his wife in 1866. To an unknown addressee,
stating he would be happy to subscribe for a copy of this person's book
xxi. Two page autograph letter headed Ward's Hurst to an unknown
addressee. Dated September 17. No year. Massey answers a request
regarding his availability for a lecture date, and his required fee.
xix. Autograph letter (3 pages) headed Ward’s Hurst, Ringshall,
Hemel Hempstead. Dated Tuesday [late 1865-66] to Samuel Carter Hall
(Editor of The Art Journal). Massey notes that Percy Fitzgerald
refers to Hall’s article on Charles Lamb in the Journal, and asked if he
could loan it to him. Percy Fitzgerald’s preface to Charles Lamb;
his friends, his haunts and his books (Bentley, London, 1866)
acknowledges Mr S.C. Hall for assistance in the book. Fitzgerald refers
also (p.190) to Hall’s graphic ‘Recollections of Literary Persons’ in
Hall’s Art Journal. Hall wrote several series of articles in
this period, including ‘Portraits of Great Men and Women of the Epoch’
and ‘Memories of the Authors of the Age.’ Massey asks if Hall could
send him a copy of the Journal he would be able then to offer some
poetry to illustrate pictures that required a description. He
considered that “...the true method is for Poetry to illustrate Pictures
rather than the reverse.” Massey mentioned also that he was not seeking
work, but had done no verse for 3 or 4 years. This offer was not taken
up, but he wrote an article on Charles Lamb for Fraser’s Magazine,
75, May, 657-72 and lectured on the subject of Lamb in this country and
during his American tours.