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EDWARD O. JENKINS' SONS,
PRINTERS AND STEREOTYPERS,
20 North William Street, New York.



PREFACE OF THE AMERICAN
PUBLISHERS
.
___________


IN entering into a definite agreement with Miss Faithfull, by which the Fowler & Wells Company are authorized to publish the American edition of her book, three points of importance were considered: First, that Miss Faithfull was well known in England and America as a lady of superior practical judgment, who united good business capabilities to excellent mental culture.

    Second, that she had been engaged for many years in works combining philanthropy and industry for the improvement of the condition of English women.  Over twenty years ago an acquaintance was formed with her by the late Mr. Samuel R. Wells while he was visiting London, and when she was absorbed in the multifarious duties of her publishing business, so well known as "The Victoria Press."  It was through a letter of introduction given by Mr. Richard Cobden that the acquaintance was made, the letter itself indicating that there were persons of distinction who were interested in the mission, for mission it was, of Miss Faithfull among the poor working people of the British metropolis.

    A word here may not be out of place with regard to the nature of that mission, although the reader will expect to find something about it from the author's own pen.  Deeply impressed by the sad condition of tens of thousands of her sisters who, unmarried and poor, were unable to find suitable employment, Miss Faithfull established a "Fund for Destitute Gentlewomen," for the purpose of supplying the means by which young women could be assisted toward procuring employment and supporting themselves.  The "Victoria Press" became a part of her plan, and its development into a publication office of considerable extent furnished occupation and the facilities for learning a most useful trade to many unmarried women and girls.  Here she demonstrated the fact that the English woman who was destitute and dependent only needed a chance to make her own living in some honourable pursuit; and the success that attended this benevolent undertaking contributed greatly toward loosening the bars of convention that had hitherto confronted the women who were desirous of earning their subsistence.

    The third point is that the book is not the work of an observer who has made a hurried tour through the country, visited the more conspicuous places designated in the common guide-books, and then presumes to write "impressions" of the people and country; but it is the conscientious opinion of a woman of matured intelligence, who has seen much of human nature, and has visited America three times before taking up her pen to note her inferences from what has been seen and heard.  Each time Miss Faithfull came here, she came with an earnest purpose to study our society, our women, our industries, that she might learn something of use in her special work.  She was each time among us more in the character of the learner than the critic, and it will be seen that her statements from beginning to end are entirely free from any tincture of pedantry or egotism.  She speaks candidly, frankly, awarding cordial approval wherever she has found matters to her liking, and expressing as decided dissent or reproof, yet always in kindly terms, regarding matters that she deems it expedient to censure.

    In the outset of their negotiations with Miss Faithfull, which were made before the volume was prepared, the publishers believed that Miss Faithfull had things to say to the American people that would serve a highly valuable purpose—be welcome and helpful to women in the industrial callings and out of them, and instructive to society at large, and that in making a liberal pecuniary advance to the author for the privilege of publishing the American editions they were warranted by the expectation of meeting a wide demand that should arise with the announcement of the book from their press.

NEW YORK, Oct. 10, 1884.


PREFACE.
________


IN compliance with the wishes of many kind friends on both sides of the Atlantic, I have collected in this form various articles, contributed during my American tours, to the Victoria Magazine, Lady's Pictorial, Pall Mall Gazette, and other English and American newspapers; and I have taken the opportunity of adding many fresh records not hitherto published.  I do not pretend to offer any new information about a country respecting which so much has been already written by abler pens than mine, but this addition to the international literature of the day may still perhaps prove acceptable, as "the point of view" taken differs from that of the ordinary traveller.

    Throughout my three visits I had one object specially before me, namely, to supplement the experience gained during twenty years of practical work in England, in regard to the changed position of women in the nineteenth century, by ascertaining how America is trying to solve the most delicate and difficult problem presented by modern civilization.  In the hope that the information thus obtained may prove useful, I venture to offer this volume to the English and American public, and I sincerely trust that no comments in these pages, upon political matters or social customs, will prove offensive to a country which extended to me such generous hospitality, and for which I entertain a profound and affectionate respect.

EMILY FAITHFULL.


19 LEARMONTH TERRACE,
E
DINBURGH, October 1, 1884.


CONTENTS.
________

CHAPTER I.


First Arrival in America—Welcome at Mrs. Laura Curtis Bullard's—A Presidential Campaign—Personal recollections of Horace Greeley—General politics—Disinclination of the best people to take part in them—Cincinnati riots in 1884.


CHAPTER II.


Reception at Steinway Hall—The Sorosis Club—Mrs. Croly—Miss Mary L. Booth—Louise Chandler Moulton—Clergywomen—Dr. Mary Putnam-Jacobi—Harper's printing-office—Riverside Press at Cambridge, Mass.—Women printers and the Victoria Press—Queen Victoria's views on women's spheres—Mr. Gladstone on monopolies—Messrs. Young, Ladd & Coffin's manufactory of Lundborg's perfumes—Mrs. Stanton and Susan B. Anthony—Hon. Gerrit Smith at Peterboro—Winter travelling in America—Mrs. Parke Godwin and an Art reception.


CHAPTER III.


The President at the White House—Washington etiquette—Caste in America—Women Lobbyists—Women employed in the Civil Service—Verdict of General Spinner on the female clerks—Lady John Manners and the English notion of their social position—Draughtswomen in English Engineer offices—Conversation with Senator Sumner on Republicanism and English loyalty to Queen Victoria—Grace Greenwood.


CHAPTER IV.


Railroads, drawing-room cars, sleepers, and hotel cars—Cookery in restaurants, hotels, and private houses—Chicago—Mrs. Kate Doggett, Mrs. Fernando Jones, General Osborne—The Soldiers' Home at Milwaukee—American affection for England.


CHAPTER V.


A visit to the University of Michigan—President Angel—Andrew White of Cornell—Professor Coit Tyler—Kansas State University—Chancellor Lippincott—Discussion about co-education—Columbia College—Rev. Dr. Dix and Professor Drisler—Consequences of higher education on health—Views of Frances Power Cobbe, George MacDonald, Mrs. Joseph Choate, President Barnard—Rise and progress of the movement in England—Miss Dawes, the first Master of Arts in the London University—Mrs. Lucy Mitchell.


CHAPTER VI.


Vassar College—Professor Maria Mitchell—President Caldwell—Life of the students—Effect of study upon health—Improvements in the direction of outdoor amusements between visits in 1873 and 1883—Riding, lawn-tennis, and boating—Wellesley College and its fire-brigade manned by girls—Mills' Seminary, the Vassar of the Pacific Coast—Miss Haskell at Godfrey—Payment of female teachers in public schools—English Governesses—Colonel Higginson on the gross injustice of the inequalities existing between the salaries of men and women teachers in the United States—Kate Field on the difficulties surrounding journalism—Anna Dickinson—The growing taste for plays versus lectures.


CHAPTER VII.


The Quaker City—Changes in society—School of Young Lady Potters—New Century Club—The Mint, and women employed in it—Theatres and English artists—Silk culture—Mr. George W. Childs, the Ledger, and his work-people—Wootton—Original manuscripts and autographs—Wait Whitman: his views on New York, Boston, Washington, and the West—Mrs. Hannah Smith and the Temperance Union—Coffee-houses.


CHAPTER VIII.


Boston: its cast wind, culture, and English look—False accusation of "decadence," but gaps in the aristocracy of letters between first and second visits—Longfellow, James Fields, Professor Agassiz—Asthma and its remedies—John Greenleaf Whittier—Oliver Wendell Holmes—Mrs. Julia Ward Howe and the New England Club—Victoria Discussion Society—Evacuation Day in New York and Forefathers' Day in Boston—Rev. Edward Everett Hale—Visit to the Boston University with the Dean and Mrs. Talbot—Miss Peabody and the Kindergarten—The Papyrus Club—Dr. Harriet Hunt—The Bible and the Woman question.


CHAPTER IX.


English and American receptions contrasted—St. Louis—Absence of gentlemen at afternoon receptions—Innovation at St. Louis—Mrs. Bigelow's "At home"—Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson of Chicago—Illinois women—Judge Bradwell and his lawyer wife—Dr. and Mrs. Hoggan of London—Incident during a railway journey—Charlotte Cushman on and off the stage—Compared as a reader with Fanny Kemble—Mr. Sothern and Miss Cushman at a steamer banquet—The ruse to avoid speech-making—The model town of Pullman—Caboose travelling in Wisconsin and Minnesota—Cincinnati during the flood of 1883—Governor Noyes—Murat Halstead and Mr. Probasco.


CHAPTER X.


New Year's Day [1884] in Colorado—The Rocky Mountains—Denver—Mrs. Olive Wright—Greeley—Ralph Meeker—Dynamite Agitators—Colorado Springs—General Palmer's enterprise—Dr. Solly—President Tenny's picnic in January—Journey over the Rocky Mountains, through the Grand Canyon of the Arkansas—Salida—Marshall Pass—Gunnison—Across the desert to Salt Lake City.


CHAPTER XI.


Brigham Young and the "true inwardness of Mormonism"—Inducements to converts to emigrate to the "promised land"—Polygamy kept out of sight—Zion's poet-laureate, Eliza Snow—Mrs. Emmeline Wells, etc.—Mormon women and wives—The effects of polygamy—Sermons in the Tabernacle and Sunday evening ward meetings—Brigham Young and others on the "women's discontent"—Exclusion of unmarried women from the kingdom of heaven—Introduction of second wives—The effect of any lengthened visit to Salt Lake City—War between Mormons and Gentiles—Endowment House, with its religious dramas, baptisms, and sealings.


CHAPTER XII.


The President's Secretary, Mr. George Reynolds—Mr. G. Q. Cannon—A religious argument after the President's luncheon—The ox-team wagon journey across the plains—Mormon amusements, theatres and dances—The effect of stage-plays on the plural wives—Captain Boyd on the Latter-Day Saints—The Mormon Bible—The Doctrines and Covenants—"Joseph the Seer's" revelations from the Lord to his wife Emma—The women's right to the franchise and their deprivation of dower—Accusations against the Gentiles—Mormon criminal statistics—The Salt Lake Tribune on "Gulled English travellers"—Celestial marriages and divorces—General Murray—Mrs. Paddick—The duty of Congress.


CHAPTER XIII.


American hotel despotism: Hours for meals—The journey across the desert from Ogden—The disappearance of the Indians and buffaloes from the railroad tracts—The flight of antelopes—The Sierra-Nevada mountains—San Francisco—Palace Hotel—Bell-boys and hotel servants generally—China-town in its New-Year garb—Cable-cars—Drives to the Cliff House through the Park and to the Presidio—Wooden houses—Fires and the Fire Brigade—Dr. Hardy's Foundling Hospital on Golden Gate Avenue.


CHAPTER XIV.


Strange contrasts afforded—Drinking and total abstinence—Divorces—Fast sets and earnest reform workers—Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper—Free Kindergar tens—Mr. Tabor's Art Gallery—Lotta Crabtree's fountain—The Baldwin Hotel—Mr. Highton—Silk culture—Efforts of Mrs. Hittell and the State Board—Prizes won at the Philadelphia Exhibition by Californian ladies for the best silk cocoons raised in the United States—Commercial opportunities of San Francisco—The Immigration Association—Chinese labour question.


CHAPTER XV.


Strawberries in February; roses and geraniums growing in the open air—New Orleans and Colorado and California contrasted—Oakland and the Ebell Society—Fresno—An exciting drive through the colonies—Miss Austin's vineyard—Mr. Miller of the Fresno Republican—Mr. A. B. Butler—Raisin-making—The Eisen vineyard—Sampling California wines—Family Emigration and the kind of people wanted—Bee culture—An ostrich ranche.


CHAPTER XVI.


The orange groves at Los Angeles—The unprecedented rainfall of 1884—Riverside—Pasedena—Mrs. Jennie Carr—Practical work for women in California—Mrs. Strong's cotton ranche—Mrs. Rogers's 40,000 herd of cattle in Texas—Domestic servants—Emigration—Mrs. E. L. Blanchard—Openings in Australia and New Zealand—The Geysers and Mineral Springs—Southern Pacific Railroad—Glimpses of Arizona and New Mexico—Kansas—Cattle ranches in Wyoming.


CHAPTER XVII.


Divorce—Journalistic announcements, advertisements, and paragraphs—Two strange divorces followed by remarriages—Divorces traced by the American press to the increase of mercenary marriages—Dr. Dwinell's statistics—Chief-Justice Noah Davis at the Nineteenth Century Club Meeting on divorce—Mr. Charles Stuart Welles—The Rev. Robert Collyer—The moral effect of the Divorce Court in England.


CHAPTER XVIII.


Occupations open to women in 1840, when Harriet Martineau visited America, contrasted with those of today—The servant question—The change effected in woman's position by the introduction of machinery—English prejudice and social status notions—Home employments—Ladies' Work Societies and the Woman's Exchange—Artistic developments in both countries—Mrs. M'Clelland's mirror painting—Mrs. Fleet's illuminations—New York technical schools and Cooper Institute—Boston art schools—Mrs. Cameron's photographs—China painting—Wood engraving, designs for manufacturers, and wall papers—Lustre painting—Mr. Denny's women tracers in the Dumbarton ship-yard—Architects—The higher branches of Art—Mrs. Nimmo Morant as an etcher—American and English actresses—Dramatic reciters—Mrs. Livermore—The Hon. Mrs. Maberley's dairy—Ladies in business.


CHAPTER XIX.


A woman switchman—Laundry work—A steamboat captain—Mrs. Maxwell of Colorado—Inconsistencies—Book agents—Stock-brokers—Copyists—Librarians —Incomes earned by shorthand writers—Employment afforded by the type-writer, the telegraph, and the telephone—The manicure—American disapproval of the employment of women as barmaids—The force of habit—Objections raised at first against women hair-dressers—Factory life—American and English operatives contrasted—Miss Jennie Collins of Boston—Various industries—Tobacco factories—Ladies on school boards and as poor-law guardians—The condition of the needlewomen in New York—The late Leonard Montefiore—Hamilton & Co.'s co-operative shirt-making—Watch-making in the United States—A visit to the National Elgin Watch Factory—Waltham factory.


CHAPTER XX.


The American girl—Oscar Wilde's definition—A group at St. Louis—Girl graduates—Other types—The liberty accorded to girls—A collegiate's affronted dignity at the suggestion of a chaperon—English and French restrictions—America the paradise of married women—The deference paid by gentlemen to ladies—A report of a women's meeting excites a "Tit for Tat" policy in a lady reporter—Changed spirit of the press—A skit on a woman's rights lecture contrasted with the dignified utterances of Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Stanton, and Mrs. Livermore—Grace Greenwood on "sufferance"—The Queen as a politician, and a wife and mother—Mr. Woodall's Bill.


CHAPTER XXI.


Anthony Trollope on English, American, and Australian newspapers—Special features of American journalism—Its wonderful enterprise—The interviewer— Mrs. Langtry—Herbert Spencer—Ladies employed on the press—Impersonal versus personal journalism—Mr. Pulitzer's views in the Pall Mall Gazette—English and American practices contrasted—Anglo-phobia and Anglo-mania—The future prospect—Thurlow Weed—Albany—Mrs. Barnes.


CHAPTER XXII.


The traveller's appreciation of New York after journeys to the interior—Religious denominations—The growth of Episcopalianism—Church music and the gradual introduction of boy choirs—French cooks—Joaquin Miller—Peter Cooper—Hotels—Cabs and carriage hire—Tiffany's—Gorham silver factory—Brentano's—The American and Colonial Exchange—Custom-house officials and the female searcher—The dress question—The theatres, artists, and dramatists.


CHAPTER XXIII.


Canada—Sleighing—Miss Rye's and Miss Macpherson's homes for English waifs and strays—Occupations for women—Report of the Montreal Protective Immigration Society—Educated women versus fine ladies wanted in all our colonies—Agricultural prospects—The Marquis of Lorne on the Canadian climate—Lady Gordon-Cathcart's settlement at Wapella—A day at Niagara Falls—American homes—Dr. Charles Phelps—Departure from America.

 


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