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ED.―I have avoided reproducing the extra small type-face used in some of the articles in the original,
          which is the reason why the column lengths in each page of this transcription differ.

 

 

IMMENSE DEMONSTRATION.
INAUGURATION, OF THE STATUE OF FEARGUS
O'CONNOR AT NOTTINGHAM.

MONDAY was a great day for Nottingham—indeed for all England, for on that day the Statue the working-men of Nottingham erected to their departed champion, was inaugurated.  The statue, of Darley Dale stone, is the work of Mr. Robinson, a sculptor of Derby.  It does him the highest credit.  Admirable as a likeness, correct in detail, it is, as a work of art, an ornament to the town, and, as an evidence of political gratitude, an honour to the country.  It is situated in the Arboretum, or public garden of the town, which is, next to the Market-place, the most commanding site that could have been selected, and where the spot was granted by a vote of the Town Council, although after great opposition and long discussion.  The statue rises on the highest point in the grounds, forms one of the most conspicuous objects of the magnificent park in which it stands, and is elevated on a commanding pedestal.  On the base is inscribed "Feargus O'Connor, M.P. Erected by his Admirers. 1859."  On the opposite slope; obliquely fronting the statue, stand the two Russian cannon which the Government presented to the town of Nottingham.  Of the beauty of this public park, it is hardly possible to speak too highly, no other provincial town having such a public promenade.  On Monday that beauty was turned into grandeur by the assembling of a stupendous concourse of the working classes, who gathered to be present at the inauguration.  It is difficult to estimate their numbers, as the masses were frequently broken by the shrubs and flower-beds which they surrounded, making them appear like islands of verdure in a living sea; there could not, however, have been fewer than from 12,000 to 15,000 persons present.  The Times, and other daily papers, describe the multitude as "a vast concourse."  The numbers would have been far larger, however, had not the most assiduous steps been taken to prevent it.  The Arboretum Committee forbade the delivery of any address on the unveiling of the statue, and, although some railroad companies had promised to run special trains for the occasion, and even gone so far as to advertise them, at the last moment they rescinded their resolutions, and nothing could induce them to appoint such trains.  Had the meeting been for any exhibition of servility or adulation to the railway classes, every railroad would have provided the alluring facilities.  Had not these obstacles been thrown in the way, there would probably have been a much larger assembly present; but, as it was, the gathering proved to be one of the most noble that ever honoured a public commemoration of the kind in a provincial town, and the prohibition as to delivering an address, was, of course, a dead letter.

    Shortly after two o'clock, the committee, with Mr. Ernest Jones, on whose right and left were Mr. Henry Wilson and Mr. Robinson, the sculptor, entered the Arboretum, and, on presenting themselves beneath the statue, were loudly cheered.  At the same moment the veil was removed from around the monument amid deafening acclamations.  Mr. Marriott opened the proceedings by a few brief but pertinent remarks, and concluded by calling on Mr. Jones to address the assembly.  The latter gentleman, on mounting the pedestal of the statue, was received with enthusiastic cheering, renewed again and again.  When silence was restored, he spoke as follows:—

    "Fellow-countrymen,—The statue we inaugurate this day commemorates two facts—the greatness of a man, and the greatness of a people.  You have placed this stone here to honour O'Connor.  Men of Nottingham! you have done honour to yourselves!  You have done honour to all England.  It commemorates not only the merit of the dead, it commemorates the worth of the living.  It tells two tales:—the one, that there is still political gratitude among the people—that noblest of all virtues—that virtue which honours the dead, from whom no more can be hoped; and encourages the living, from whom their all is still to be expected.  But let us turn from the marble to the man.  You mighty thousands who surround this monument, what do you gaze at?  A perishable stone?  No! you are looking at truths eternal as the world, that shall be higher and stronger still when this granite has crumbled into dust.  We honour the man who builds a perishable temple.  A Tite is famed for erecting the palace of usury; the name of Wren has risen with the aspiring dome of St. Paul; and Michael Angelo still sanctifies the glories of St. Peter.  Si quæis moumentum, eircumspice.  But how much more should you honour the man who is departed!  Granite and marble perish, however nobly built.  The Zealander shall seek for the site of St. Paul's, and St. Peter's shall mingle its dust with the ashes of the Capitol.  Not so with the work of O'Connor—he was the architect of truth—he built not with bricks or stone, but with the thoughts of man; and he who erects fabrics in the human mind, raises a monument more. . .

. . . durable than can be fashioned from the mountain's granite heart.  There were many, in his lifetime, who assailed the departed patriot—some, more cowardly and no less cruel, attacked him after death.  Their shafts recoil harmless from this recording stone.  He worked for us, he lived for us, he died for us; he joined us rich—he left us poor.  The manufacturer, the landlord, the banker, and the merchant, leave their millions behind them, and are honoured by servile generations.  They got their wealth from the poor—he got his poverty from them.  He bequeathed no wealth, but died in utter penury—the noblest attestation of his honest life.  Yet what am I saying?  He died rich, immeasurably rich, if riches can be measured by the legacy he bequeathed.  He left no acres, and no mills—no temples, and no palaces; but broad domains in the field of knowledge, fructified by his intellect, and fortified by his energy.  He taught the English people truths they but obscurely knew before.  There are some who have said: 'Granting his honesty, his was still a wasted life.  He toiled, and strove, and suffered—and what good has it done to him or unto you?  He drew the workman from his toil, from his wages, and from his home; he plunged him in the stormy sea of agitation—and what result has come?  Beware, then, working men! how you follow the beckoning of the agitator.'  Ah! the poor false reasoner!  I tell you, never was a truth propounded that did not make the world richer than it was before.  It never dies, though its utterer may perish piecemeal; and, though no fruit may seem to grow from its teaching, it has leavened mankind none the less, and the great heart of humanity will swell sooner or later with that germ of truth, and flash some bright new glory on the world!  Christ died in obloquy and martyrdom, but Christianity mounted from His ashes.  Believe me, no great man has ever toiled and perished, without doing good.  To such men, to hopeless martyrs, who passed unrecognised and perished unaided, we owe—aye! every liberty we have—free press, free speech, free meeting, the right of petition, union and combination, religious toleration, the right of possessing arms, and trial by jury—things we think little of, because we are born to their daily use; but let any one touch the smallest of them, how dearly, how preciously, you would value them!  These things, all these, we owe to the O'Connors of other days.  Had it not been for the Wickliffes and the Hampdens, the Russells and the Pyms and the Cromwells of the past, you dared not have stood here this day.  Had it not been for men like O'Connor, and for none more than him, the liberties your fathers conquered, you would not have kept.  I know no man who has done more for humanity.  You must not measure a man's life by the successes of other ages, but by the difficulties of his own; and none of England's heroes had such difficulties to contend with as beset O'Connor.  That which was common in the days of Sidmouth and Castlereagh, is impossible now.  Thank O'Connor, and the kindred spirits who worked in the same path, and seemed to pass away without results produced.  Trades unions and combinations are unassailable by law.  Thank the political agitators who frightened tyranny from violence, and yet sank themselves!  The noble army of martyrs is the most victorious host that ever saw the light.  Here stands the effigy of one of its noblest soldiers.  Illustrious seedsmen, who never gather the harvest they sow: but time developes it; through the spring-time of tears and sorrow it grows over their graves; it ripens to the smiles of hope, till other and far later generations celebrate the happy harvest time.  How few then think of the good old seedsman of the bygone day!  You have remembered him.  This monument is the record of a people's truth.  This monument is a foundation stone of coming freedom.  It gives the advanced minds of our country confidence in you,—confidence that there are qualities worth struggling for in England's people—confidence that a people which can honour the memory of the dead, will struggle for the emancipation of the living.  And now to him, the subject of this day's celebration, let us pay the homage due, and with uncovered heads bow in solemn silence to the memory of O'Connor."

    Every head was uncovered at the words, and that stormy approbation which even the solemnity of the scene had failed to repress, sank in sudden silence, while many an eye glistened and many a heart beat quick at the impressiveness of that magnificent and overpowering spectacle.

    The Arboretum Committee having forbidden even a dinner or tea-party to be held in the grounds or buildings, Mr. O'Connor's friends assembled at four o'clock at a banquet in St. George's Hall.  The large T-shaped table occupied all the Hall, and was completely crowded.  Mr. Taylor, of the Arboretum, provided the repast, and for elegance of arrangement and choice of viands, the entertainment was deserving of the most unqualified commendation.  Mr. Ellerthorn occupied the chair at the banquet.  The memory of Feargus O'Connor, and the healths of the Committee . . . .

. . . and sculptor were drunk, the first in solemn silence, all the company rising.  An admirable brass band performed during the dinner, and some vocal music enlivened the proceedings.  Mr. Taylor and Mr. Marriot offered a few remarks.

    After the banquet, the public was admitted, and the room was soon filled.  Mr. Dean Taylor was called to preside, and made a forcible and eloquent speech.  Mr. George Harrison then addressed the meeting; after which the chairman called on Mr. Ernest Jones, who, on rising, was greeted with a perfect storm of applause, and spoke for nearly an hour.  The company did not separate till a late period.  A letter was read from Mr. Thomas Allsopp, expressing that gentleman's deep regret at being unable to attend.

___________________


    C
OMMEMORATIVE DINNER OF THE FRAMEWORK KNITTERS, CIRCULAR BRANCH.—This trade resolved to celebrate the day by a dinner, and a social meeting afterwards.  Mr. Ernest Jones, in response to the invitation with which this body had honoured him, attended and delivered an address, which was much applauded.  A resolution was unanimously passed, thanking the Nottingham Committee for having erected a statue to the memory of O'Connor.  A true and healthful spirit seems to pervade this important body of men.

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THE NEW PAPER.

FRIENDS! are you taking any steps with reference to the new Paper, in either of the ways suggested last week?  I do not address you at any length now, inasmuch as the space is occupied by the report of the great Nottingham demonstration; but allow me to impress on you that the issue or non-issue of the new paper depends on your kind exertions, either by obtaining shareholders to the extent of 500l., or by means of the Testimonial.

    Some friends have written wishing that the proceeds of the Testimonial should all be devoted to myself; but I would observe, that, if partly devoted to the issue of our new paper, they would be employed more beneficially for me than they could in any other way; but it is, of course, only a part that I could afford so to apply.

    I venture to make these observations, as on the speed with which the paper shall now appear depends its success.—Your faithful servant,

ERNEST JONES.

___________________


CHANGE OF ADDRESS.

    All letters for Mr. BLIGH are, in future, it is requested, to be addressed to him at 11, Norfolk-gardens, Curtain-road, Shoreditch, London.

___________________


FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

THE CONFERENCE.

    The conference at Zurich does not go on a bit the more smoothly for all its lengthy delay.  Count Colloredo's pretension to be regarded as sole president of the meeting met with opposition, on the part of M. de Bourqueney, and thus caused another hitch which has only been repaired by the agreement suggested by the good-natured, all-conciliating Frenchman,―that the conferences should take place alternately at each other's rooms, for they are all residing at the hotel Bauer, and that the day on which Colloredo went up the three stone steps which lead to Bourqueney rooms, along the stone passage to the right, Bourqueney should be considered as chairman of the meeting; and those days on which Bourqueney descended the three stone steps and turned down the boarded passage to the left, Colloredo should be regarded as the president of the palace and throne accordingly.
    The Plenipotentiaries of France and Austria held a Conference on the 23rd, which lasted two hours.  They have regulated the settlement of the affairs of Lombardy with the consent of the Sardinian Plenipotentiary.  The arrangement is expected to be confirmed by the different sovereigns.  The affairs of the Duchies will be treated of directly between the Courts of Paris and Vienna.

FRANCE.

    Peace is still the order of the day in the upper regions of the Government, and war the constant subject of dread amongst every class of citizens in Paris.  The augmentation of the garrison of Lille to a force of 60,000 men gives immense cause of uneasiness as to the motive of such a peculiar illustration of peaceful intentions; while the order for the immediate formation of a permanent army of manoeuvre, of which the head-quarters are to be in Algeria, adds to the impertinent curiosity which induces inquiry into the ultimate meaning of such peaceful demonstration.
    A R
OGUE'S HEAD.A curious case occupies all the heads connected with law, physiology, history, or moral philosophy, belonging to the University of Paris.  The professors of the Sorbonne, in particular, are the most animated and zealous in the debates, and the most interested likewise in the result.  Everybody knows that Cardinal Richelieu was buried at the chapel of the Sorbonne, where a splendid tomb, one of the finest productions of the kind ever beheld, records the grief of "History" under the features of the beautiful Duchess d'AguilIon, his mistress, and the despair of "Religion" represented by the Princess de Conti, who was his mistress likewise.  But, in one of the hottest days of the revolution, the people, heedless of "History" and defiant of "Religion," broke open the tomb, and bearing the head upon a pike through the streets of Paris, tossed the carcass, about which that head had been so entirely occupied during life, into the common sewer which runs from the Rue St. Jacques down to the river.  The head was not lost, although the body was—It was bought after the day's fun was . . . .

――――♦――――

PAGE 2.
 

. . . over, and the mob, finding dead game but poor prey after all, had retired to consult upon a more stirring chase for to-morrow, by a member of the assembly, who obtained it from the sans culotte to whose possession it had fallen.  This gentleman died at a good old age, leaving numberless curiosities behind him, amongst which figures in his will, as the most conspicuous of all, "The head of Cardinal Richelieu to my beloved son."  For some years the State has been endeavouring to negotiate for the possession of this skull, but no inducement can compel the owner to part with it.  Every temptation known in the like case has been held out—the Legion of Honour—a consulship for the son —a presentation to Saint Denis for the daughter—nothing will succeed, and at length it is resolved to attach the detainer of Richelieu's head before the Tribunals; as, according to the opinions of the greatest legal celebrities, the remains of a statesman belong clearly to the State.  Of course the puns and quolibets are flying about on all sides; but the obstinate owner of the skull declares that the State may take his own head instead, but the Cardinal's shall remain his for ever.

    A D
ESIRABLE ACT.—The French Government has adopted a very praiseworthy measure. All the horses and mules of the artillery, except those which are required for its effective force, will be lent out gratuitously to the agricultural population, in order to be serviceable in farming operations—on condition, however, that they be well fed and taken care of, and never be ridden or driven for mere pleasure, or be employed in the postal service.

    The Moniteur of yesterday morning announces that the promised disarmament will commence on the 20th of September.  It may be of a more limited nature than we were led to expect by the observations of the Parisian press when the Emperor's decision became known.  It appears that only those soldiers will be discharged whose period of service expires in 1859.  Their number is comparatively small.  Furloughs of three months only will be granted to those who are entitled to them by the regulations of 1832, and who form a more numerous class than the language of the Moniteur would lead us to suppose.  Lastly, the same privilege is accorded to those who can show that they are "indispensable for the support of their families."  We confess ourselves a little disappointed with the extent of the measure.  The disarmament may be more apparent than real.  It may be but temporary for the greater number of the men whom it will affect, and it may be permanent in a small number of cases only where a discharge would have been obtained in the regular course of military service.


ITALY.

    PIEDMONT.—In Piedmont the Government propose to adopt an electoral law on the basis of a deputy for every 30,000 or 35,000 inhabitants.

    R
OME.—A letter from Rome of the 14th communicates the Pope's answer to an autograph letter of the Emperor Napoleon, in which he was called upon to assume the honorary headship of the proposed Italian Confederation, and to consent to the adoption of certain reforms in the administration of his temporal dominions.  The Pope declines to have anything to do with the Confederation, unless the deposed Princes be restored.  He will not accede to the proposal of a separate administration for the Legations of the Romagna.  He consents, however, to the secularisation, provided that his subjects shall not object to it, as he alleges they did in 1849.

    The deputation appointed to present to the King of Sardinia the medal which has been struck by a private society, in commemoration of the words pronounced by his Majesty on his opening the session of the Piedmontese Parliament of the 10th of January last, had the honour of an audience on the 20th.  Count Mamiani, president of the committee, reminded his Majesty of the memorable words:— "We are not insensible to the cry of grief which we hear from every part of Italy."  His Majesty replied as follows:―

    "I thank you for your beautiful present.  Ever since it has been in my power, I have consecrated my efforts to the great national cause.  I have it constantly before my mind; I live for it, and am ready to die for it.  Difficulties and misfortunes arise which must be surmounted, and they certainly will, for I have witnessed the courage and discipline of which the Italians are capable.  Under present circumstances it has been impossible to go further, as I might have wished.  In the midst of past sorrows, I have found great consolation in seeing that the Italians have understood me, and have not entertained a doubt concerning me.  The masses, blinded by excessive enthusiasm, are sometimes led astray.  I might have pardoned such false steps, but I repeat that I have nothing to reproach them with.  It seems incredible that some countries that are unfavourable to us do not, or will not believe that there is nothing obscure or insidious in my policy.  Frankness and straightforwardness are its companions—perhaps it is the going straight to the object in view that creates displeasure.  The Italian question is very clear, and it is no doubt on that account that they will not understand it.  The union, perfect order, and wisdom which the people of Tuscany, the Duchies, and the Romagna now display are admirable.  I certainly did not think that Italy was incapable of acting so; still the spectacle of such an attitude affords me great pleasure.  Have, therefore, faith in me, gentlemen, and be assured that now, as well as in future, I shall do everything in my power to promote the welfare of Italy.

    L
OMBARDY.—A letter from Milan says:—Complaints are raised here at the delay which has taken place in arming the national guard.  That force is now organised; it has four legions, making together about 12,000 men, but not more than 2,500 muskets could be mustered.  An application was made to the Government, and 10,000 excellent ones will, it is said, be shortly provided, a contract having been already entered into for that purpose.


SWITZERLAND.

    The embarkation at Naples of the 4th Regiment of Swiss troops has been effected in the best possible order, they having previously received the whole pay due to them.  1,669 privates and fourteen officers will be received at Marseilles by the Swiss Consul.


BELGIUM.

    The Antwerp Fortification Bill has passed the Belgian fifty-seven Chambers by a majority of fifty-seven to forty-two.


GERMANY.

    The municipal authorities of Frankfort—the Federal town and seat of the highest constituted assembly of Fatherland—have felt themselves compelled to request the Diet to interdict the carrying of side arms by the garrison soldiers when off duty.  If such a step be not taken, they are afraid there will soon be no soldiers left to garrison the place.  At present, the Prussians are attacking the Bavarians in front, having, at the same time, to ward off the Austrians on either side, and to keep a good look out on the Frankforters from the rear.

    The armament of the Prussian fortresses on the Rhine continues, just as though peace had not been concluded.  The annual autumnal manoeuvres this year will be carried out on the grandest scale.


AUSTRIA.

    The ministerial crisis in Austria is at an end.  A Cabinet has been formed under the presidency of Count Rechberg, which, from its composition, gives promise of an able and energetic administration of affairs; but disappoints the hopes of the Reform party, as the new ministers are all staunch Conservatives, and little disposed to promote the liberal measures so loudly demanded by the popular voice.  The most remarkable men in the new Cabinet are the late Governor of Gallicia, Count Golouchowski, who will undertake the Home Department; and the late ambassador at Paris, Baron Hubner, abandons the diplomatic career, and assumes the direction of the Police.  It is very significant that the two most important members of the ministry should be placed at the heads of those departments; for it is in the sphere of those departments that those evils exist which the people wish to see immediately abolished.  The objects which occupy the attention of the Superior Council of Austria, in the way of internal reform, are—first, as respects the finances, then the free exercise of the Protestant religion, the regulation of Jewish affairs, and the regulation of municipalities.  The subject . . . .

 . . . of the representation of the provinces is reserved for the present.  There appears to have been a fear in the Court circle of too rapid progress being made in these measures of reform; but the new ministers will, of course, put on the drag.

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THE FATE OF ITALY.
TUSCANY.

    ANNEXATION.—The National Assembly have unanimously voted the annexation of Tuscany to Piedmont, amid the acclamations of " Viva it Ré!"


PROCLAMATION TO THE TUSCAN ARMY.

    The following proclamation has been addressed to the Tuscan army by M. Ricasoli:—

    "Officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers of the army of Tuscany,

    "Your country has not forgotten you, oh brave men who under the national banner are now encamped on the banks of the Po, as advanced sentinels of that Italy which will never know how to resign herself not to be entirely independent.  If the peace, which surprised you ere you had well arrived on the field of battle, prevented you from accomplishing the vows which you made on setting forward, do not, therefore, suppose that your duties as soldiers are over.

    "The fate of Tuscany, as of all Central Italy, is far from being settled; now, while in the great cities the representatives of the country are giving expression to the desire of the populations, you must prepare to support them, if need be, by arms.  Already the provinces on the banks of the Po are leagued with Tuscany.  The defence will be common.  You will defend on the Po and the Appenines the same cause for which you rushed to fight with such generous ardour in Lombardy.  Show yourselves in your camps the worthy rivals of your brethren in the cities.  By their concord and their civic virtues they are setting a grand example.  Imitate them by your military virtues, and then the destinies of Italy will be assured.  You will have at your head General Garibaldi, one of those tried and valiant warriors of whom Italy is above all others proud, and also a man of order and discipline—one who will render less painful to you the separation from the brave and loyal captain who has hitherto commanded you.  You will be, as proud to obey him as we are to have chosen him to command you; his noble examples, his eloquent words, will strengthen you in that spirit of resolution, that obedience to your chiefs, that strict observance of discipline which give power and victory to the armies of great nations.  Thus, and thus alone, Central Italy, armed and united, may, thanks to you, obtain the respect of Europe, and furnish the Emperor Napoleon with reasons to support our cause.

    "Soldiers, the Tuscan Government watches over you; for you, who are leading the hard life of camps, it will redouble that solicitude which it owes to all the citizens confided to its care.  It sees with joy those bonds of fraternity which every day unite you more and more to those populations whose welcome guests you are.  May these cordial relations be the harbingers of a still closer union between peoples that the Appenines alone divide.  You will hasten this desired consummation if you show yourselves such as your country hopes and expects to see you, if you show that you can bear high and keep unsullied that national banner which you have sworn to carry wherever there are enemies of Italy to be found.
    "August 15, 1859.
              The President of the Council of Ministers
                      and Minister of the Interior,
                                                                                        "B. RICASOLI.
"The Secretary-General of the Tuscan Government,
                                                                        "CELESTINO BIANCI."


MODENA.

    BANISHMENT AND ANNEXATION.—The National Assembly, after having proclaimed the forfeiture of Duke Francis V. to the ducal throne, voted the following resolution, announcing:― "The Assembly decrees the annexation of the Modenese State to the Monarchial, Constitutionals, and glorious Kingdom of the Dynasty of Savoy, under the magnanimous sceptre of King Victor Emmanuel."  It further adopted the proposal to confirm the dictatorship of Signor Farini.

    D
EFENSIVE LEAGUE.—A defensive league has been concluded between the States of Central Italy.  Prince Hercolani, the Delegate of the Government of the Legations, has signed the act of accession to the League.

    A
FORMIDABLE RUMOUR.—The Paris Pays communicates the startling intelligence, that on the arrival of M. Farini to assume the dictatorial government of Parma, a portion of the troops proclaimed their fidelity to the Bourbon Duchess, and took possession of the small fortress of Bardi, intending to hold it for their Sovereign so long as there shall remain any chance of her restoration.  The Pays also announces the equally surprising news that a French division, commanded by General Boubbaki, have arrived at Parma.

    Should this intelligence be confirmed, confidence in the success of the Italian movement would be considerably lessened.  The presence of French troops in Parma seems to foreshadow the armed intervention of France in the actual crisis, for the restoration of the expelled dynasties.  Yet the official and Governmental press in France is unanimous in repelling the imputation of such a policy to the French Government.

    General Garibaldi passed in review on the 18th on the excise ground of Modena, a part of the eleventh division of the Italian army, and declared himself much pleased with its appearance.  He afterwards visited the military hospital and spoke most kindly to several of the wounded soldiers.

    The National Assembly, in its sitting of the 23rd, unanimously voted the following decrees:―
    1. The confirmation of the dictatorship of Signor Farini, giving him full powers to contract a loan of 5,000,000 lire.  2. The erection of a monument to commemorate votes of the Assembly decreeing the dechéance of Francis V., and the annexation of Modena to Piedmont.  3. That the Volunteers who served in the late campaign for the independence of Italy have deserved well of their country.  4. That the Dictator be charged to negotiate with the several foreign Powers for the restitution of the political prisoners which Francis V. carried away with him on leaving the country.  The Assembly was afterwards prorogued.

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FOREIGN NOTES.


    The first electric telegraph has now been set up in Persia.  It is sixty leagues long, and extends from Teheran to the camp of Solfania.

    We have to report the adoption of a veritable reform at Hamburg.  The senatorial families have abdicated their privileges, and a more democratic constitution has been established.

    In Germany the movement for the creation of a central power exhibits considerable determination and activity.

    A letter from Bologna, in the Opinione of Turin, says that, Signor Alberto Mario and his wife (late Miss Jersey M. White), while travelling under the name of Martinez, were arrested.  They had attempted to provoke a Red-Republican rising.  They have been treated with respect, and will be set at liberty on condition of their quitting the country.

V
ICTOR HUGO AND THE AMNESTY.—The following is the declaration made by M. Victor Hugo, in reference to the amnesty proclaimed by the Emperor of the French:—"Nobody will expect from me that I can grant, in what concerns myself, a moment of attention to this thing called an amnesty.  As France is now situated, a protest absolute, inflexible, and eternal, is my duty.  Faithful to the engagement which I made in my conscience, I will share to the last the exile of liberty.  When liberty returns, I will return.—VICTOR HUGO, Guernsey, Hauteville-house, Aug. 18, 1859."

    A telegram dated Augusta, Georgia, August 9th, says:― "The continued rains induce fears of injury to the growing cotton crop,"  It is stated that a numerous body of the Congressional constituents of Mr. Sickles had signed an address, calling upon him to resign his seat in Congress.

    LOUIS BLANC, THE AMNESTY, AND THE FRENCH EXILES.— Louis Blanc writes, in reply to communications from some of his countrymen, to say that in his opinion the amnesty granted by the French ruler may be fairly hailed as a blessing by many among the exiles, whom their forlorn position in a foreign country or family ties of a specially urgent character, justify in returning to their native land.  The amnesty, being unconditional, no sort of stain whatever attaches to the act of availing oneself of it, more especially if it be for the purpose of fulfilling domestic duties not less imperious and sacred than those arising from political convictions.  No man, therefore, conscientiously influenced by such contingencies, is obnoxious or to blame for seizing the opportunity, though reluctant to receive the boon.  M. Louis Blanc, however, reiterates his opinion that Frenchmen who have strong and obvious motives for believing that their return, besides being unsafe, would be of no avail either to their cause or to their country, are perfectly entitled to remain where they can speak out their mind, and enjoy the ennobling protection of the law.  To serve France in France, he says, is for us now plainly impossible.  To serve her abroad is the only chance we have left, at least so long as the policy of the Empire remains unchanged.

    The King of Sardinia has intrusted to two Lombard artists the execution of two paintings, one the battle of Solferino, the other the taking of San Martino, an episode of the same battle, in which the Piedmonts were the sole actors.  A marble monument, recording the heroic defence of the city of Brescia against the Austrian troops in 1849, is also to be executed by a native artist.

    U
NINTENTIONAL HOMICIDE.—At Saint Gall, in Switzerland, a few days ago, young workman and workwoman having married, went with their friends to a public-house to eat the wedding feast.  When the mirth and fun were at their height, the report of a fire-arm was heard, and the young husband, to the consternation of the party, was struck in the head by a ball and fell dead.  The same ball before hitting him grazed his wife's neck, and after passing through his head, lodged in in the shoulder of one of the guests, wounding him rather severely.  It turned out that the fatal shot was fired by a workman named Boppart, but quite unintentionally.  He being a friend of the newly married couple, and being about to join the wedding parity, of which his wife was one, thought fit to fire his gun in their honour, but by mistake he charged it with a ball cartridge instead of with one of simple power.  Boppart was so affected at the fatal event and at the comments made on it by the townspeople that the day after he drowned himself in a pond.

_________________________________

CELEBRATION OF THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN IN ALGIERS.

    The journals in Algeria state that the successes of the French in Italy have afforded great pleasure to the Arab populations under their rule, and in their honour an influential Arab chief, the Khalifa of the Mina, Ben-Abd-Allah ould Shel Arabi, who is a commander in the Legion of Honour, gave a few days ago a grand fête to the French authorities and the native chiefs of his district:―

    "General Hugo, commanding the subdivision of Mostaganem, accompanied by the sub-prefect and mayor of that town, arrived early in the morning at Bel-Assel, the khalifa's residence.  At about a league from the house, they were met by the aghas and caids of the district, mounted on magnificent horses, and carrying the long Arab muskets; the Arabs were accompanied by flags and music, and presented a brilliant appearance.  Near the house was an Arab camp, containing a great number of tents.  The khalifa had caused a sumptuous banquet to be prepared for his guests; and when they were seated sheep roasted whole suspended on long poles, and a multitude of dishes containing meat and fowls, &c., were brought in in stately procession.  The caids collected in the courtyard in groups of ten or twelve, and the dainties prepared were distributed to them; those of the Sahel, having attained a certain degree of European refinement, fed themselves with a spoon, but one spoon served for several of them—each taking a mouthful with it in turn, and then passing it to his neighbour.  At the khalifa's table, after the repast was finished, a toast was drunk with enthusiasm to France, the Emperor, the Empress, and the Imperial Prince; and the caids outside joined in applauding it.  The whole party then proceeded to the camp, where a grand fantasia took place.  It consisted, as usual, of races of charges of imaginary enemies, accompanied by the incessant firing of muskets, wrestling, and feats of strength.  After these rejoicings the party returned to the khalifa's residence, where a supper as plentiful as the preceding meal was prepared."

    The next day the French General passed the Arab chiefs an their goums in review, thanking them in a brief speech for the interest which they manifested in France, and they responded by cries of "Long live the Emperor!"

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INDIA.—DREADFUL STATE OF HINDOSTAN.―THE
REVOLT NOT QUELLED.

    The insurgents still hold out in Nepaul, whose ruler, Jung Baliadoor, screens them.

    Between Phileebeet and Gurwall the rebels are now scattered, but they are not likely to descend to the plains at the foot of the Himalayas, as a strong body of police, composed chiefly of Sikhs, is stationed at the points through which Oude is approachable from the hills.  They are beset by formidable difficulties on the south, and alarm seems to have driven them frantic.

    We occasionally hear of some skirmishes with small bodies of insurgents.  Burjore Sing, and his brother-in-law, Chutter, at the head of about five hundred rebels, were lately in the vicinity of Jhansi; the whereabouts of the former having been discovered by Catania (Adjutant of Police), an attempt was made to catch him in the dark, but it failed.  A small detachment of the 24th. Madras Infantry, and one of military police, horse and foot, under Major Davis, went in search of the enemy; but after knocking about for some time, on the 19th June the little force reached Joarum at one o'clock p.m., when the two rebel leaders were eleven miles off across the Dessaum river, close upon the border of the Tehree State.  Leaving all the heavy luggage at Alipore, Major Davis made a rapid march at two o'clock, and got up to the attack about five.  Overtaken in a dense jungle the rebels fled in all directions, about ten being killed, and fifteen taken prisoners—amongst the former was Burjore's foster brother, perhaps the real leader on the occasion.  It is believed that he was shot by Major Davis just after he had fired at Lieutenant Hawthorne.  He wore a lot of valuable ornaments, which will make a considerable addition to the prize property.

    A correspondent of a north-west contemporary gives some particulars of a late attack by a small force under Major Meade on the enemy's position at Giriasô: "Major Meade returned yesterday from a successful dour against the rebels.  He started on the evening of the 30th June with 250 men, including 40 of H.M.'s 92nd Highlanders, marched 30 miles during the night, and reached the enemy's position at Giriasô a little after sunrise.  He commenced the attack immediately, and after five hours' fighting cleared the hill on which the rebels had taken up a very strong position (300 feet high, covered with a jungle, and two miles in length), and stormed their village (a large stone built one of great strength).  The enemy were between 400 and 500 strong, with 100 sepoys; of these 80 or 100 were killed, including all the head men.  But unfortunately some women and children were accidentally smothered by the smoke, and perished in the village.  This was not the fault of our brave soldiers. The enemy had got into a strong loopholed house, and would not give in, and no one had any idea there were any women or children there.  Our loss was twelve or fourteen killed and wounded.  It was a most successful affair, and ought to have the best possible political effect among the unruly Thakoors and their rebel followers."

    It is surmised that some of the Nepaulese may try and raise an insurrection, or some of the Nana's emissaries may be sent to try and get the Raj for the Nepaulese—as there is no doubt he and the Begum are assisted by these Paharies.

    It is said the whole of the Court of Nepaul, except Jung Baha-door, sympathise with the rebels, and, were it not for Sir Jung, would give them an asylum at Katmandoo.

    The Bombay Overland Times states:—"We received information yesterday of two important actions having been fought near Sanger within the last month, by Lieutenant Roome, of the 10th Native Infantry, with certain rebel bodies, consisting, as we suppose, of the débris of Tantia Topee's force.  Lieut. Roome, than whom the service does not contain a more gallant soldier, is commanding, we believe, a detachment of the 10th Native Infantry, and of Mayne's Horse at Basonda, and is said . . .

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PAGE 3.
 

. . . to have surprised Adeel Mahommed on the 23rd ultimo, in the neighbourhood of Goonapora.  The attacking force consisted of 160 men of the 10th Native Infantry, and 100 of the horse.  Roome left Basonda on the 22nd, hoping that the rebels, said to be 2,000 strong, and amongst them 800 mutineers, would await his attack if made with so small a force.  The rebel leader had taken up a strong position in the hills about a coss distant from Gooriepoora, but seems to have wanted courage at the last moment to sustain the assault.  Our little column advanced carefully, though rapidly, upon the position, to find it abandoned.  Lieutenant Blair with the cavalry went in pursuit, and cut up 100 of the enemy.  The column was fired upon on its return at the village of Gooriepoora, when Roome gave orders to storm it, an operation which was performed without loss, and the supplies of an army collected therein destroyed.  On the 27th information was brought into Basondah that another leader, Surferaz Khan, with 300 Sepoys, was again encamped at Gooriepoora; and Roome marched at twelve o'clock that night to come upon the rebels just as they were preparing to march in the morning.  The cavalry were at once let slip, but the rebels made for and secured the hills.  A few only were cut up.  These were all Bengal Sepoys, and showed a good deal of discipline in their tactics, for after the first charge they took up a position in the rocks where the horse could not follow, and kept up a steady fire of musketry and abuse upon the assailants.  The infantry finally dislodged them from the ground they had taken, killing a large number of them, and capturing all their horses and baggage animals.  Among the dead were Sepoys who had fought at Mooltan and Guzerat, as were evidenced by the medals that were found upon them.  The effect of these operations has been to reduce the district to the semblance of loyalty.  The villagers had previously refused supplies, and vaunted that they did not recognise the English Sirkar, and would sell nothing to the troops.  It is hard to see the end of this state of matters.  We are reaping the whirlwind, and know not when our work will be done."

    R
AJPOOTANA.—Extract of a letter from Rajpootana, 2nd July;—"Colonel Evans and Lieutenant Tyrwhitt thought the business was over, and dismissed almost all the troops, retaining only two levies and a couple of companies.  On the night of the 20th (the day that the head quarters of the Beloocha Battalion marched on their return to Hyderabad), the Nuggur Parker Rana made a successful attempt to escape, overpowered and cut down Evans's and Tyrwhitt's guards, cut the tent ropes, seized the treasure, and liberated the prisoners.  The new levies bolted.  The two companies of Beloochees, however, must have stuck to it; for they were fighting till sunrise, when Johnson's Beloochees returned and cleared the place, pursuing the rebels into the hills, with severe loss, and killing many of the liberated prisoners.  Another field force has gone out from Deesa, and they will be obliged to maintain a force at Nuggur Parker for some time to come."

    E
UROPEAN LEVIES OF THE LATE COMPANY.—There is every reason to believe that eight or ten thousand of these troops will demand their discharge, in terms of the general order that has been published.  It is impossible to say whether a new bounty would have led these men to re-enlist or not.  It was surely imperative, however, for Government to have ascertained that fact beforehand, and if a bounty would have retained them, it was sheer madness to refuse it.  We have lighted upon evil times in India, and there is no man in the country who seems to understand the epoch but Sir Charles Trevelyan, whom the Madrassees are ready to immolate for his uncomplimentary minute upon Indian juries.

    The Overland Bombay Standard states, with reference to Oude and its frontiers:—On the 1st ult., Captain Renny, with a detachment of the 3rd Sikh infantry and a troop of native cavalry, gallantly surprised a body of rebels at Chainpore, on the edge of the jungle under the Nepaul Hills, capturing twenty of them (including Sepoys of the 42nd, 60th, and 67th Native Infantry), with three elephants, two camels, seventeen horses, and a large quantity of arms.  On the 14th ult. Major Vaughan, 5th Punjaub Rifles, attacked, with a force from Sidonia Ghat and Bhings, a body about a thousand strong, in a pass leading into Nepaul, and defeated them with considerable loss.  Meanwhile a smaller party, under Captain Cleveland, Moradabad Levy, went in pursuit of the Atonah Rajah, who was encamped with 200 men in the jungle.  The Rajah himself escaped, with the loss of about 25 men, and his own tents, baggage, &c.  During the return march of the Sidonia Ghat force (1st Punjaub Cavalry and 5th Punjaub Rifles) an attack was made, on the 18th, on a body of rebels in the Sun Puttree Pass, about 100 being killed.  These encounter are said to have decided Beni Madho, who was collecting a force in Dang, to remain quiet.

    The Begum and Khan Balladeer Khan are at Bootwal, in a fort: they have about 100 men with them.  The Begum has money, and supplies all the rebels with clothing and money to purchase supplies.  Khan Bahadoor Khan is very ill, and cries day and night; he has no followers with him.  The Nana is about eight koss from Bootwal, with 2,000 men.  They are regular Sepoys, and are very strict in doing duty and keeping guard.  There are 4,000 Budmashes, men from Lucknow, and elsewhere, at the foot of the hills, who plunder, as they have no money.  They have plenty of women with them, who came also from Lucknow, whom they have robbed of their jewels.  It is the intention of the rebels to go towards the Santhal district, when they leave their present locality.  It is also reported in the Nana's camp, that Ferose Shahs had gone to Cabul, to get assistance from Dost Mahomed.

    We believe, however, that Captain Wheler, 2nd Gwalior Infantry, has drawn a cordon around Feroze Shah, and is closing on him rear Seronj.

    The rebels are more troublesome at Sanger and Lullutpore than ever, and there are more detached posts around than last year.  Those about Sauger are a compound of Boondela Budmashes and Sepoys, under Jeswunt Singh.

    They have closed the northern road, between Sauger and Chutterpoor, and lately looted 240 grain carts.  They carry their plunder to an old fort, deep in the jungle, which was dismantled by Brigadier Wheler, and to which they have constructed a good road, providing themselves also with carts, &c., for the convenience of transporting their booty.

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ROYALTY.

    The Queen has held a two days' review at Aldershott; the Prince of Wales has visited the Bass Rock, and great preparations are making for his sojourn at Oxford.

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THE METROPOLIS.

    HEALTH OF LONDON.—The population of London is apparently more movable than any other city population.  It sends out emigrants, it is recruited to a large extent by immigrants, and in the changing seasons of the year thousands come and go.  In the present week many of its visitors are gone; thousands of the inhabitants are away, yet these waves of the vast population produce little disturbance in its vital phenomena.  Deaths and births suffer no interruption.  1,188 persons died; 1,781 children were born in the week ending Saturday, August 20th.  The deaths, it is gratifying to find, are below the average.  In the corresponding week of 1849 and 1854, 2,230 and 1,883 of the people perished; but the deaths in the corresponding week of other years, after due correction for the increase of population, were 1,185.  Diarrhoea is decreasing; the deaths in the week were 240.  The east and south districts suffer most severely.  Ten persons died of cholera, eight children and two men.  Last week the births of 917 boys and 864 girls, in all 1,781 children, were registered in London.  In the ten corresponding weeks of the years 1849-58 the average number was 1,555.

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    S
EDITIOUS BALLADS—The Constitution of Wexford states that, on Wednesday evening, Sub-Constable Ginn arrested two men, named John and Martin Sullivan, on the charge of singing and disposing of seditious ballads in the public thoroughfares.  The ballads were forfeited to the authorities; the men being let off by the mayor, on promising to immediately leave the town.

   ELECTION INTELLIGENCE.

    LISKEARD—Mr. Bernal Osborne was returned on Saturday without opposition.

    H
ULL.—Mr. Somes was elected by a considerable majority on Saturday last, the numbers being:—For Mr. Somes, 2,068; for Mr. Lewis, 1,579.

    B
ERWICK.—Mr. Majoribanks was elected on Saturday after a very sharp contest.  At noon the two candidates stood equal, and at the close of the poll thus:—Majoribanks, 335; Hodgson, 334 majority for Majoribanks, 1.

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THE BUILDERS' STRIKE.

    On Saturday the usual meeting of the Executive Committee of Operative Builders was held at the Paviors' Arms, Johnson-street, Millbank, and was very numerously attended by the operatives.  This day completed the second week of the masters' lock-out, and the third of the strike by the men at Messrs. Trollope's.  The men are still sanguine that they shall be able to accomplish the object they have in view, while on the part of the masters there are no signs of giving way.

    As an evidence of the antipathy in which such a declaration is held, and as a proof of the determination to resist it, the committee and conference of the operatives of the building trades, on Saturday evening, issued a placard, signed officially by their secretary, full of sarcasm, and calculated to throw ridicule on the Association of Masters, who thought they could induce men to accept it as the terms upon which they should employ their labour.  This placard is headed in full capitals, "The Odious Document."

    It has been already stated that the operatives have sent delegates into various parts of the country to address the workmen of the building trades, with a view to prevent them coming to London to supplant those who are out of employment; and the reports of those places already visited, made at the Paviors' Arms on Saturday, are stated to have been most favourable to the cause of the men.  It is stated, meetings were held at Brighton, Windsor, and other places, at which the operatives were most enthusiastic, and large sums were subscribed.  At present, therefore, there does not seem to be even a remote prospect of a termination of this struggle between "capital and labour."

    The number of the "locked-out" operatives is stated to be greatly exaggerated, the actual number not exceeding 16,000.

    On Tuesday afternoon the master builders of the metropolis met at the London Coffee-house, Ludgate-hill, and sat for a long time in consultation with closed doors.  The reporters of the press were excluded, and at the end of the meeting they were informed that the masters had decided not to open their shops for the present, and then adjourned till Tuesday next.

    The adjourned meeting of the delegates of all the trades unions in London, was held on Tuesday night at the Shaftesbury Hall, Aldersgate-street.  Mr. Gray was called to the chair.  Mr. Potter, the Secretary, at the request of the delegate from the engineers, said the masters had been successful in getting in a certain number of men to Messrs. Trollope's, and as fast as they had come the society had induced them either to go back to the country or to leave the shop they came to.  The number of men locked out at present amounted to about 10,000, and of those 547 were masons, 1,077 bricklayers, 2,816 carpenters, 662 plasterers, and the remainder consisted of painters, stone-cutters, &c.  They struck a dividend amongst them of 1s. 1d. each, and there was no difference made between the skilled and the unskilled workmen.  Trollope's men were paid 12s. for the skilled men and 8s. for the unskilled.  They expected the dividend to be declared next week would be larger.  When the delegates had concluded, the Chairman of the Engineers moved a resolution to the effect, "That the meeting exceedingly regretted that a portion of the iron trade that had been locked out had issued the circular stating that they were not recognised by the conference, when such a statement was not correct."  Mr. Heep having seconded the motion, it was carried unanimously.  The meeting was adjourned at a late hour.


THE TRADESMEN'S DOCUMENT.

    At the Westminster Police-court, on Saturday last, Thomas Ball, an Irish labourer, was charged with obstructing the foot and carriage ways.  William Norris, 125 B, said that at two o'clock that afternoon he found the defendant in Stafford-row, Pimlico, in front of a new building in the course of erection by Messrs. Trollope, with a large board before and behind him, on which were large placards.  Above a hundred persons were round defendant, reading the placards, and considerable obstruction, both on the foot and carriage way, was consequently caused.  Witness told him to go away, when he replied that if he paid him his day's wages he would do so.  Witness, of course, said he had nothing to do with defendant's wages, and induced him to move on, but he again and again returned, and witness found it necessary to take him into custody.  A gentleman on horseback in the road complained of defendant being there with his boards.  The following is a copy of the placard:

    "The Odious Document—The Agreement—'I declare I am not now, nor will I during the continuance of my engagement with you, become a member of or support any society which directly or indirectly interferes with the arrangements of this or any other establishment, or the hours or terms of labour; and that I recognise the right of employers and employed individually to make any trade arrangement in which they may think fit to agree.—Fellow-workmen, the above is a copy of your badge of slavery."

    The "document" bore date the 18th of August, 1859, and the signature of "G. Potter, Secretary, by order of the executive."  Appended to it was the form to be signed in the presence of masters or foreman, designated the "counter stamp," and the instruction, "to light your pipe with."  Defendant said he had been sent out with the boards, and did not know he was doing wrong.  He stood in the road.  Mr. Arnold, in consideration of his ignorance of the law, informed him that if he stood anywhere with an attractive placard, be it upon any subject it might, and thereby caused an obstruction, he was liable to a penalty of 40s., and committal for a month in default.  It was immaterial what the matter contained in the placard was; but the exhibition of it in this instance had collected a crowd, and blocked up the thoroughfare.  He (the worthy magistrate) would not now punish the defendant, but having told him what the law was, required him to enter into his recognisances of 20l. to come up for judgment if ever called upon, which he would be if he repeated the offence.

______________


    O
XFORD.—An open-air meeting of the operatives in the building and other trades at Oxford, was held near the Martyrs' Memorial, Oxford, on the evening of Monday last.  Several members of the London Conference attended as delegates, being supported by a large body of the working class.  Mr. Banks (mason) of Oxford, moved, and Mr. Stingo (joiner) of London, seconded a resolution, pledging the Oxford operatives to assist the movement.  The motion having been strongly supported by Mr. Facey (painter), of London, was carried without dissent.  Another resolution was then carried, pledging the meeting to endeavour to prevent any of the workmen of the neighbourhood going to London at the employers' solicitation during the struggle.  During the progress of the speakers, subscription lists were handed round by those interested in the cause, and sympathy for the men was evinced by the response of many of the bystanders who had no connexion with the building trade.

______________


    T
HE JOURNEYMEN BAKERS AND THE SHORT TIME MOVEMENT.—The journeymen bakers held another meeting on Saturday at the Cowper-street Institution, City-road, in furtherance of their renewed movement for shortening the hours of labour from eighteen to twelve hours daily, and to substitute day for night labour.  There were about 700 operatives and their wives present, the majority of whom came to the place of meeting in a procession, headed by a band playing military music.  The Rev. Mr. Stowell was called to the chair.  Mr. Ayton moved the first resolution, to the effect that the present system was not consistent with reason, justice, or humanity, the operative baker being compelled to work an unlimited number of hours, at a fixed remuneration,  . . . .

. . . . without proper time for natural rest, whereby he became morally and physically incapable of discharging his duties as a Christian, a parent, and a citizen; and it was, therefore, the opinion of the meeting that a limitation of the hours of labour to twelve hours each day would be beneficial alike to the masters and the men.  The resolution was carried unanimously.


TENANT EVICTIONS IN MERIONETH.

    A very important meeting has been held at the County Hall, Bala, for the purpose of explaining those privileges which the British constitution has provided for the people, and of sympathising with those tenant farmers who have been evicted from their farms in consequence of a firm adherence to their political principles.  The chair was occupied by J. Jones, Esq., J.P., of Fachddeiliog.

    The Rev. John Williams, of Liandrillo, moved the first resolution—"That this meeting is of opinion that it is very important that all registered electors should consider that the destiny of the United Kingdom is intrusted to them—that the right to vote is sacred—and that so important a trust should be discharged according to their conscientious convictions."

    Mr. Thomas Jones, of Llandderfel, seconded the resolution, which was agreed to.

    O. Richards, Esq., M.D., of Bala, proposed the second resolution:—"That any attempt to encroach upon the elector's right is an infringement upon liberty, and to be deprecated as treason against the fundamental principles of our constitution."

    The Rev. J. Parry, in seconding the resolution, protested against the doctrine which was so shamelessly paraded during the election, that the landlord had a right to his tenant's vote, and he again reminded them that it was a sacred trust which the constitution had provided for them for the benefit of the country at large. (Cheers.)

    The Rev. Lewis Edwards, M.A., moved the third resolution: —"That this meeting having viewed the harsh proceedings which the recent contest has given rise to in this neighbourhood, and regarding the object thereof, an attack upon freedom of election, and to terrify tenant voters into a slavish submission to the dictation of the landlord, pledges itself to use every fair and constitutional means to defeat those ends."

    Mr. David Jones, of Llandderfel, seconded the resolution.

    The Rev. David Rowland, of Llidiardau, also spoke to the resolution.

    The Rev. Michael D. Jones moved the fourth resolution:― "That this meeting, deeply sympathising with those tenant voters, who, in consequence of having refused to vote at the dictation of their landlord, and contrary to their conscientious convictions, have thereby incurred serious losses, resolves to appeal to a British public for a subscription (from a penny upwards) to mark its sense of such treatment, and to present the sufferers with a memorial of the sympathy and regard off their countrymen."

    Mr. Simon Jones, in seconding the resolution, spoke at considerable length on the necessity of their frequent meetings to impress upon the electors the necessity of knowing the correct value of the franchise, and of preventing it becoming a dangerous instrument in the hands of a local Bomba.  It was well to look upon it "as a favour," but they should remember that Herod's wife asked for the head of John the Baptist "as a favour." (Hear, hear.)

    A vote of thanks having been voted to, and acknowledged by the Chairman, the meeting separated.

________________________________


    C
RIMINAL STATISTICS. —From a review of the criminal statistics of the last 15 years, it appears that 1848 was the most productive of committals in England and Wales, the total having risen in that eventful twelve months to 30,349.  In 1855, the total was 25,972, and the operation of the Juvenile Offenders' Act and the Criminal Justice Act, giving magistrates power to convict summarily in certain cases, is seen in a reduction in 1858 to 17,855 committals for trial by ordinary process at sessions and assizes.  This is the lowest point reached in the whole period under review.  The convictions in 1844 were 71 per cent.; in 1855, 76 per cent.; and in 1858, 74 per cent.  The proportion of the sexes in the committals was as follows:―1844, males 81½ per cent., females 81½ per cent.; 1855, males 77 per cent., females 23 per cent.; 1858, males 78 per cent., females 22 per cent.  In Scotland. 1848 was also the worst year, but the number of committals in 1858 was greater than in 1844, the operation of the acts already mentioned being limited to England and Wales.  The total were, in 1844, 3575, and in 1858 3782, the convictions being 77 and 75 per cent. respectively, and the proportion of female commitments 26 and 27 respectively.  The decrease of crime in Ireland is very remarkable, the total committals having fallen from 41,989 in 1849 to 6308 in 1858.  Another extraordinary feature in the returns relating to Ireland is the small proportion the convictions have uniformly borne to the committals, the per centage having been only 41 in 1844, 47 in 1848, 58 in 1852, 57 in 1855, and 52 in 1858.  It will be seen, however, that even in this respect the administration of justice in Ireland has improved, greater care being probably now taken with regard to the commitments, while juries give a fairer consideration to the cases before them.  The proportion of the sexes in 1844 was 69 males committed to 31 women; in 1858, 66 men to 34 women.  Crime, unhappily, seems therefore to be on the increase among the female sex.

    S
T. GEORGE'S EAST.—A scene of a most disgraceful character was witnessed last Sunday afternoon in the parish church of St. George's-in-the-East.  The Rev. Hugh Allen, who has recently been appointed by the vestry to the afternoon lectureship, preached at the service which commenced at half-past two o'clock, and in the course of his sermon alluded to clergymen who did not preach the gospel, and more than once mentioned the Pope of Rome, allusions which tended to excite the minds of many persons present who were opposed to the religious teaching of the rector of the parish (the Rev. Bryan King) and his curates.  At the close of this service the churchwardens endeavoured to clear the church in order that preparations might be made for the ordinary four o'clock service, but upwards of 100 persons refused to leave and crowded round the altar.  This portion of the church was decked out in ultra-Romanistic style, with crosses, candles, and coloured cloths.  At five minutes before four o'clock the doors of the church were thrown open, and an excited and riotous mob rushed in, shrieking and howling, towards the altar.  In a few moments afterwards a clergyman came from the vestry, and was accompanied by six or eight young men, who acted as choristers, and who were habited in white robes.  The clergyman himself, who was stated to be the Rev. Mr. Jennings, the curate of Stepney, had a large black beard and moustache, which rendered his appearance very remarkable.  He wore the Oxford master's hood, and upon his scarf at the back of his neck was woven a cross.  As soon as he appeared in the church there was a great uproar, cries of "Oh, oh," and hisses.  The rev. gentleman, who appeared to be quite unmoved, proceeded with his choristers to the front of the altar, where they all knelt with their backs to the congregation.  The Litany was intoned by the priest, and the responses were made by the choristers, but while they sung others said them in the usual plain style, with very strong voices, in order to spoil the effect of the choir, while another set of people vociferated remarks which are not to be found in the Liturgy, and jeered the clergyman by imitating the noises of a goat.  At the close of the Litany service, the clergyman rose, bowed to the altar, and retired, at which time nearly the whole of the congregation hissed, yelled, and indulged in them most hideous noises.  A gentleman who was present, and who appeared to have been worked up to an extraordinary pitch of excitement, shouted at the top of his voice, "Pray don't tear down the altar," an indirect invitation which would have been forthwith acted upon had not the churchwarden stood at the gate and guarded the entrance.  At the close of the service hundreds of persons assembled in the churchyard for the purpose of hooting the clergyman as he left the sacred edifice, but he, disappointed them by getting out by a more private way.

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PAGE 4.
 

    A PUBLIC MEETING will be held at PHILPOT HALL, Philpot-street, Commercial-road East, on Monday next, August 29th, to take into consideration the best means to obtain effective Reform in Parliament, when ERNEST JONES will address the meeting.  Commence at eight o'clock precisely.

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OUR LETTER-BOX.

GLASGOW.—Subscriptions for the Testimonial Fund received
    by R. S. Hamilton, Stationer, 39, Nelson-street, City, and
    Henry Carrigan, John-street Lane, Bridgeton, Glasgow.
N
ORWICH.—A Testimonal-sheet lies at Mr. I. L. Hawkin's, St.
    Michael's Coslang, Church Alley.
J. P
ICKFORD.—Thanks. This leaves 2s. 5d. due.
W
ELLINBOROUGH.—A Testimonial Sheet on behalf of E. Jones,
    Esq., lies at J. Smeather's, broker, High-street,
    Wellinborough, where all subscriptions will be thankfully
    received.
D. C
HALMERS.—Many thanks for the eight shillings for
    papers.  We assure you your papers were posted at the
    usual time, and the fault is entirely with the post.

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THE CABINET NEWSPAPER.
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LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 27, 1859.
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HORRIBLE TYRANNY TOWARDS THE POOR.

WE have frequently of late had occasion to notice the constantly increasing rapidity with which one act of intolerable oppression of the poor succeeds the other.  This week, however, in north and west, two cases occur, which are heartrending, and ought to fill every one worthy of the name of man with the hottest and most unbounded indignation.  The one affects only one family directly, but is a deliberate insult to an entire parish, and, indeed, to the entire people.  The other affects many families.  The scene of the former lies in Sutherlandshire, on the estates of the Ducal House of Sutherland, already so notorious for its doings.  The latter has been enacted near Aberdare, in Wales.  The first we quote from the Times—the last we have from an old correspondent of our own.  No words we can add, can heighten the picture given in the following description of

    F
EUDAL TYRANNY IN THE HIGHLANDS.—An occurrence (says the Edinburgh North Briton) has taken place at Applecross, in Ross-shire, the seat of the Duchess of Leeds, and mixed up with the matter there is a gallant Captain Chisholm, who surely must have followed the profession of arms in one of the South Sea or Cannibal Islands, if his conduct on the occasion alluded to may be taken as a specimen.  The statement is on the authority of a Highlander, who seems to be well acquainted with the circumstances.  He says:—"This neighbourhood has been the scene of the greatest excitement among the people during the last few days, in consequence of a most heartless eviction of a poor man and his family from their house.  Some time ago there came a decent, honest man, a tailor, to reside here, with the intention of prosecuting that vocation.  For this purpose he obtained permission from a poor woman to occupy a part of her house, where he had been quietly and steadily working for the surrounding population.  There was no complaint made against him; he was charged with no crime.  Suddenly, Captain Chisholm, the factor for her Grace the Duchess of Leeds, ordered himself and family to cease work and quit the country.  This request he very naturally declined to comply with.  The people interceded on his behalf, and sent in a petition, numerously signed, to the factor, begging that he would permit the man to remain, as a tradesman of his description was much needed.  The captain was inexorable, and on Tuesday morning he sent down two gillies, without any warrant or legal process whatever, to drive him out of the house.  The poor tailor they made short work of.  They found him quietly sitting down to his breakfast, when they seized him and pitched him outside the door, sending his humble breakfast after him.  They next turned upon his wife, who was lying sick in bed.  They dragged her from her bed screaming, and sent her outside, bruising and discolouring her arm.  Her infant child, who was sucking at her breast, was then taken out and laid upon the ground.  Their whole effects were thrown out after them, and the door locked.  The people stood by horrorstruck at such cruel treatment, and could only express their sympathy for this afflicted family by raising a small subscription in their behalf.  Towards evening one of these gillies was sent through every house in the neighbourhood, warning the people that if they gave shelter to the tailor or his family they would be at once deprived of their lands.  All were terrified, not only to give shelter, but also even to acknowledge this poor man as he wandered houseless by the roadside.  In this extremity accommodation was provided for him in the parochial school-house, where he now finds shelter from the elements; and a number of the people assembled and erected a tent for him on the minister's glebe, where he and his unfortunate family may in the meantime find a cover until some better be provided."

    We do not pause to ask what our readers will say to this, but proceed at once to another case of


OPPRESSION AT ABERDEEN.*

    DEAR SIR,—Hirwain Common has been on fire.  The most brutal attack upon the working men was committed here last week that ever was heard of.  No one can find a right or title to this common.  Some of the cottages have been built six or seven years, some more and some less.  Some of the people had notice to leave two or three months ago, but did not believe that any one had a right to drive them out, as we have been paying poor rates, and had quiet possession.  But last week a body of policemen, with swords by their sides, brought a gang of ruffians, who threw out the poor people's things, and then pulled down and set fire to their houses.  There are a great number of other hardworking honest men in dread of being served in the same manner.  It is a set of people who call themselves "Blinkers," who meant to get us away, that they might take possession themselves.  There is no protection here for the working man.  The fences of the gardens were all thrown down belonging to the cottages they destroyed, and the gardens exposed to the stock, which was a great loss to the families.

    Dear sir, we should be very much obliged if you would give us some advice, so that we could bring our case before the Queen.  We hear that the Brinkers have given us a very bad character to the Commissioners, but we are quite ready to prove it to be false.  We are all willing, if any one could find a proper owner, to pay a small ground-rent.  We should be much obliged if you could make our case known in the Cabinet.—Yours, sincerely, C
HAS. HUBBARD.
    Hirwain Common, near Aberdare.
*Ed―should read 'Aberdare'.

    Such acts as the above make one thrill with indignation.  Is it possible that Englishmen, Welshmen, or Scotchmen can stand quietly by, and see such tyranny perpetrated with impunity?  A meeting has just been held to reprove the tyranny of Mr. Price towards his wealthy tenants; let far larger and more demonstrative meetings be held to stigmatise this treatment of the poor.  We would also suggest that a fund be subscribed to the proceedings, with a view to test the legality of the acts whereof we complain.  We shall be happy to receive any assistance through these columns.

THE PROSPECTS OF ITALIAN FREEDOM.

IT is very evident that Victor Emmanuel is secretly encouraging the proceedings in the Duchies and Legations  His commissioners have paved the way for what is now occurring, and they resign their Sardinian commissionerships to accept the dictatorships of the "revolted" states.  Garibaldi is a lieutenant-general in the Sardinian service, and, without apparently forfeiting his position under Victor Emmanuel, consents to be appointed commander-in-chief of the armies of Central Italy.  These facts speak for themselves; and, if we couple therewith the coolness said to exist between the Piedmontese King and the Emperor of the French, it seems not at all difficult to arrive at a conclusion as to the turn matters are now taking.  The unanimity with which the Duchies and the Legations all decree their annexation to Sardinia also savours of a previous secret organisation, instigated under Royal auspices; and such a proceeding may well thwart the projects and irritate the feelings of that precious liberator of the oppressed—Napoleon Bonaparte.  Another point highly deserving of notice is the rumour that the affairs of Lombardy being settled at the Zurich Conference, with the assistance of the Sardinian Plenipotentiary, those of the Duchies and Legations are to be treated of by the Emperors of the French and Austria only.  We hope and believe that the Italian people themselves will have a little to say upon the subject, perhaps at the cannon's mouth, with Garibaldi as their leader.  Every hour is now fraught with vital importance, and the only safeguard of the Italians lies in arming and drilling to a man,—the more so, as 50,000 French are still in Northern Italy.

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THE REVOLT OF HINDOSTAN.

WE direct the attention of our readers to the news brought by the last Bombay Mail.  They will thereby see that the revolt is far from over; but that fighting, although on a small scale, is going on in almost all the old quarters.  In one instance, a native force, little superior in numbers to the British, resisted the latter for nearly an entire day.  The Nepaulese openly favour the insurgents; the Sikhs are notoriously disaffected,—they are 80,000 in number, and but little will be needed to enact the old tragedy anew.

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NAPOLEON'S "CLEMENCY."

THE "amnesty" of Napoleon has been justly spurned by Victor Hugo and Louis Blanc.  The despot doubtless thinks he is strong enough to allow his foes and victims to return.  But no!—he does not think so,—for he fears one man, and that is—LEDRU ROLLIN.  Strong must be his position, who dreads the presence of one solitary exile!  But the infatuation of the tyrant is doubtlessly as great as his crimes.  Possibly he reckons on "gratitude!"  The gratitude of the lamb to the wolf, after the latter has tortured and tormented it for years—wrecked its home and murdered its kindred.  We tell the bloodstained usurper, that if hatred was engendered by his cruelty, it will be rendered by his clemency more intense.  The vacant chair at the domestic hearth caused tears of rage and anguish; but when that chair is filled by the pale, worn-out, death-stricken cripple who shall be restored to it, we are much mistaken if those tears do not ere long change to a rain of blood—and that, from imperial veins.  Every restored exile will be as a ghastly beacon for vengeance, a living monument of atrocious cruelty, a breathing reproach to the people who allowed such things to be, and bent the knee before the monster who had enacted them.

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LABOUR AND TRADE.
T
O THE EDITOR OP THE "CABINET NEWSPAPER."

    Sir,—The case of John Wandless is heard at Bishop Auckland on Friday, the 19th inst., the case having been put off from time to time since March last.  Mr. Johnson something like split the difference between the miners and himself and the bindings.  The miners of Binchester Colliery were bound under a monthly agreement for some time back at the following rates of prices:—6s. per score of coals, each score to consist of twenty-one tubs, and each tub to hold twenty pecks, or six cwt. weight of coals in each tub.  This was the monthly agreement.

    The yearly agreement, touching the same clause, runs thus:—The said R. S. Johnson, as such agent of such owner aforesaid, agrees to pay the said parties hereby hired, and a fortnight upon the usual and accustomed day the wages to be earned at the following rates, namely, to each hewer for every score of coals wrought out of the whole mine, each score to consist of twenty-one tubs, and each tub to be of the same size and dimensions as the tub now used and adopted at the Binchester Colliery, and which said tubs shall not be altered or varied in size without the privity and consent of the parties hereby hired at and after the following rates, viz., in the whole mine 6s. per score, &c.  The blank place that is left in the clause is for the cubic inches according to the size that Mr. Johnson sets the tubs through the year.  The tubs have grown from 22,182 cubic inches to the large size of 27,793 cubic inches, so that the miners of Binchester Colliery lose on every half score of coals, which makes the sum of 3s. for that half score for the miner, 15¾ cwt.  Six cwt. is the standard weight for twenty pecks of coals, Mr. Johnson was solicited to put the standard weight of twenty pecks on the pit heap.  The question may be asked, how many cubic inches does the coal peck contain?  I answer as many as the coal king chose.  The miner has no protection for his labour by Government; he is solely under the control of the coal kings.  They can make their coal peck from eight quarts to the wonderful size of nineteen quarts, and still stand at the standard weight of six cwt., because the weight is never fetched on to the heap to test the weight of coal in each tub.  The number of cubic inches in a coal peck for the standard of six cwt. should be 1,109,096 decimal cubic inches.  Miners! I call upon you in the name of God to come forward and petition your Government for them to pass an act to enforce all coal kings to place weights on their pit heads, instead of cubic inches, so that you may get justice, for your coal kings will never do it until they are forced to do so by Government.

P. P. P.

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BLUE QUARRIES.
T
O THE EDITOR OF THE "CABINET NEWSPAPER."

    SIR,—The miners of the county of Durham, with their brethren of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Scotland, and all the south of England, being united to try to better the condition of . . . .

. . .  themselves and their children by trying to get the Legislature to pass their petition, the miners of Northumberland, wishing to start a provident society,—which the miners of Durham cannot see clearly through,—the petition, that is now before the Commons, provides such steps, and likewise to mend their condition politically.  According to Mr. Hunt's report the number of collieries in the United Kingdom, and the tons of coal and iron ore raised, will, at a farthing per ton, make ample funds for the miner and the widows and orphans.  The following is an account of Mr. Hunt's report:―

 

No. of Collieries.

Tons of Coals.

Value.

Durham & Northumberland   …

275

15,853,481

£3,963,371

Cumberland  … … …

28

920,137

230,034

Yorkshire  … … … …

383

8,302,150

2,075,537

Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire     … …

198

4,710,750

11,776,687

Warwickshire    … …

17

356,500

89,125

Staffordshire …  … …

548

6,680,780

1,670,195

Lancashire… … … …

380

8,050.000

2,012,500

Cheshire    … … … …

35

695,150

173,862

Shropshire… … … …

57

749,360

187,310

Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Devon    … … … … …

96

1,125,250

281,313

North Wales  … … …

81

1,022,500

255,624

South Wales  … … …

352

7,495,289

1,873,823

Scotland… … … … …

417

8,926,249

2,231,563

Ireland   … … … … …

     74

     120,750

          30,188

Total

2941

65,008,649

£16,252,162

    This is the report for one year at the pit's mouth, when raised, when it is estimated that, at the place of consumption, when freight, &c., have been paid, its value is raised to nearly 30,000,000l., and by the time it reaches the consumer this amount is still further enhanced.  The capital invested by colliery owners is estimated to amount to 45,000,000l., and in connexion with the coal trade a further sum of 47,000,000l. may be added as the value of shipping engaged in the conveyance of coal, including a proportionate share of the costs of railways, canals, and docks used alone for purposes of coal traffic.  These sums form a grand total of 92,000,000l., of which 31,000,000l, may be apportioned to Durham and Northumberland, 40,000,000l. to other parts of England, and 21,000,000l. to Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.  The Hetton Coal Company is believed to derive a profit of 35,000l. or 40,000l. per annum, and two or three other large establishments average about the same sum.

    There is likewise raised 8,040,959 tons of iron ore for coal alone.  At a farthing per ton, it gives to the miners, or will give if they will assist the few to get the petition forward, 67,717l. 6s. 10¼d.  Allowing the miners to be off work by sickness and accident at the rate of 5 per cent. they would receive 10s, per week, allowing 8,334l. for deaths, and to be distributed amongst the widows and orphans of those who may lose their lives by accidents in following their perilous occupation.  I think this will let the miners see something, if they will take notice.  It is strange that the men are so lax to their own interests.  Miners of Durham and Northumberland! come forward, and do your own share of the work that is to be done.  Each has a portion to do, if it be ever so small.  We have influential friends in London, who have promised to support our cause both in Parliament and out, if you will support your own cause.  If it has to fail by your not coming forward, do not blame any one but yourselves.  After this appeal, I hope you will be up and doing.  Let us have to say that the miners are not so dead to their own interests as has been said of them in former times.

JAMES WATSON.

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    T
HE AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS AND THE HARVEST.—Farmers in the west of England, and especially in Devonshire, have experienced great inconvenience by reason of the scarcity of labourers, which has in many instances retarded harvest operations.  Several reasons are given for this scarcity.  Many labourers have emigrated, others have been attracted to the railway works, where they get much higher wages, and a large number of young labourers have enlisted in the army.  The farmers complain bitterly of the apprenticeship system, to which cause they mainly attributed the present scarcity of labourers.  There can be but little doubt that another cause is the smallness of the wages paid to the agricultural labourers.  In many cases there have been improvements in this respect, but even now 12s. per week is about the highest sum paid to the labourer, while in some instances 9s. per week only is paid.  It must, however, be borne in mind that the labourer has other small privileges, such as a supply of cider daily, and, in some cases, a plot of ground, at a nominal rent, for the cultivation of vegetables, &c.  Still there can be no doubt but that one cause of the present dearth of able-bodied labourers is the lowness of the wages which are paid.  The weather for harvest operations in Devonshire and the other western counties has been favourable on the whole, and the cereal crops are good and of excellent quality.  Potatoes are in some places affected by the disease, but the yield is abundant.  The recent heavy showers had a most beneficial effect on the green crops and the pastures, which were much in need of moisture.  The apple crop is abundant, and cider, it is said, will be cheap and good.

    T
HE STRIKE OF THE CHAINMAKERS.—On Tuesday, about 2,000 chainmakers and others assembled at an open-air meeting, on an elevation in a meadow at Quarry Bank, called the Poole-lane, South Staffordshire, to determine on the course which should be pursued by the chainmakers of that district, who are now upon strike for an advance of wages of 1s. per cwt.―equal to from 5s. to 8s. per man, according to the description of chains made.  Mr. Homer, the secretary of the local union, presided, and congratulated the men that this was not only the largest meeting that they had held, but the one also at which they would receive the best news that had hitherto been communicated to them.  There was every reason to expect that they would succeed in getting the rise they had so justly demanded.  Mr. Blake, a deputation from Messrs. Abbott and Co.'s manufactory, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, then spoke.  He said that he had come all the way from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to bring them a tangible expression of the sympathy with them in their movement, of about 360 of their fellow workmen in that northern town. (Cheers.)  In plain words, he had brought them 50l.— (rapturous cheering)—to aid them in their struggle; and as the men whom he represented regarded their own and the interests of the chainmakers of Staffordshire as identical, and believed that money was the sinews of war, he was commissioned to inform that meeting that they might depend upon receiving fortnightly from their north country brethren a subsidy as large as the sum he had now brought. (Renewed and prolonged cheering.)  If more should be needed, he was further commissioned to inform them that an effort would be made to send them more. (Continued cheering.)  The meeting was afterwards addressed by some local men, of whom John Chance and Noah Forest were the chief.  From their statement, it appeared that the chainmakers of Chester were on strike, as well as those of Dudley, Walsall, Wolverhampton, Cradley, and the surrounding district; that on the previous evening, Mr. Theophilus Tinsley, the employer of sixty men at Tipton, had consented to give the rise, and that others were expected to follow in the same direction.  Resolutions authorising the return to work of Messrs. Tinsley's men to-day, and of a continuance of strike by those men whose employers would not give the advance, were passed, and the meeting dispersed peaceably, and in high spirits, after a sitting (standing) of three hours.

T
HE TRIPLE BIRTH AT DURHAM.—Mrs. Weams, the wife of William Weams, of Framwell-gate, Durham, has given birth to three children.  Application was made by John Bland, Esq., surgeon, for the royal bounty usually given on occasions, and he received the following reply yesterday:―"Sir Charles Phipps has received the commands of her Majesty the Queen to forward to Mr. Bland the enclosed Post-office order for 3l. as a donation from her Majesty to Mrs. Weams.— Buckingham Palace, 22nd August, 1859."

 
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PAGE 5.
 

THE BLACK CALENDAR.
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The Murder near Leeds.

    Another piece of intelligence has come to the knowledge of the Leeds police.  Two men, the one named William Appleby and the other Walter Beardow, were committed for trial by the Dewsbury magistrates on a charge of burglariously entering the house of Mr. Benjamin Blakely, of Batley, near Dewsbury, a few nights ago.  Appleby, a young man of twenty-seven, is a native of Bolton, in Lancashire, but has resided for the last ten years in Bradford; and Beardow, who is a year older, has been previously convicted for burglary.  As is usual with West Riding prisoners, these men were committed to the Wakefield House of Correction, there to await their trial.  When they arrived in the prison yard, suspicion attached to them in consequence of their answering to some extent the description furnished by the witnesses in the Leeds murder case; and Mr. English, chief constable of Leeds, was communicated with.  Mr. English took over the witnesses (two in number) to Wakefield prison, and although Appleby and Beardow were then attired in the uniform of the gaol, they were readily picked out by the witnesses as the two men who were seen lounging about the fields at Roundhey a short period previous to the hour at which the murder must have been committed.  Mr. Barr, clerk to the Leeds justices, wrote to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, asking that the men might be brought over to Leeds by habeas corpus on Thursday next, in order that the evidence against them might be taken.


Attempted Murder on Plaistow Marshes.

    At the Ilford special sessions James Digby, a labourer, was charged with stabbing a man named John Sharp in the face with a clasp knife, and who is at present lying in a dying state in the Poplar Hospital.  Police constable 341 K deposed that on Monday night last, between ten and eleven o'clock, while on duty near the north side of Plaistow-marsh, he heard a cry of "Murder!" and "Police!"  Witness hastened to about the centre of the marsh and saw the prisoner struggling with the man Sharp upon the ground.  Witness separated them, and found Sharp bleeding from a deep wound in the left cheek.  He informed witness that the prisoner had stabbed him with a pocket knife.  The prisoner did not deny the charge, and said, "Yes, it served him right."  The injured man was seen by a surgeon, who dressed his wound, and ordered his immediate removal to the hospital, whither he was conveyed in a cab.  The following certificate was handed to the magistrate:—"I hereby certify that John Sharp is lying in a very dangerous condition from an incised wound of the face, which will no doubt prove fatal.— MATTHEW BROMFIELD, House-surgeon of the Poplar Hospital."  The Chairman (to the prisoner): Have you anything to say in answer to this very serious charge of cutting and wounding?  Prisoner (sullenly): No, I have not.  The Chairman: Then you stand remanded until Saturday next.  The prisoner was accordingly conveyed back to Ilford gaol.  The constable, in answer to the chairman, said that every search had been made for the knife with which the injury had been inflicted, but it had not been found.


Dursley Murder—Confession of the Murderess.

    The behaviour of this ill-fated woman since her consignment to the condemned cell in Gloucester county gaol, has been becoming her awful situation.  She, however, seems to have made up her mind from the first that she must die, and does not attempt to deny that she cut her husband's throat.  Her account of the transaction is thus narrated: That after she came home from the public-house on the Saturday night she lay down on the bed in her clothes; that her husband (who, it will be. remembered, left the public-house before her) did not come home until an hour after her; and, as she did not open the door to let him in, he got in through the window.  She states that he then went to bed and commenced ill-using and beating her, and threatened to kill her.  She says he was sitting up in bed and made a blow at her, on which she seized a razor which was lying on the shelf and cut his throat.  He exclaimed, "You have killed me," and fell back on the bed.  She also says that her husband kissed her before he died.  Two petitions, praying for a commutation of the sentence, have been got up—one at Dursley and the other at Gloucester.  No day is yet fixed for the execution.


Melancholia Suicide of an American Merchant.

    Mr. Hersey Stowell, jun., American merchant, of Cross-street, committed suicide under distressing circumstances, by hanging himself.  An inquest was held upon the body before Mr. Hereford, city coroner, when Mr. Alfred Flockton, clerk to the deceased, stated that Mr. Stowell was a partner in a house in America, and that by the last three mails intelligence had arrived of the over-stocking of the American markets by this country, and the over-shipment of specie from America, which would cause a tightness in the money market there.  This news appeared to depress the deceased very much, and he said he would cancel all the orders he could.  He received a letter from his partner in America which contained a very discouraging account of the state of trade there, and he then left his office and said he should be back at four o'clock.  He asked witness to leave a draft that was accepted and a message at another American house, which was done.  About three o'clock, when witness returned from dinner, he found deceased suspended from a rope behind the door.  He called Mr. John Charlesworth, architect, whose place is in the same building, to his assistance.  He was cut down as speedily as possible, and a medical man was sent for, but all efforts at restoration were in vain.  The jury returned a verdict that "the deceased hanged himself whilst in an unsound state of mind."  Mr. Stowell has left a widow to deplore his loss.


Execution at Monmouth.

    The last sentence of the law was carried into effect upon Matthew Francis, convicted before Mr. Justice Willes, at the Monmouth assizes, on the 6th inst., of the murder of his wife under circumstances of great atrocity and the utmost deliberation.  Francis, who was a cripple, lived at Newport, sometimes working as a sailor and occasionally as a haulier.  About two years since he married a girl of the town.  They lived unhappily together, and in February last she left him, after a desperate quarrel, and went to live with a neighbour, named Hawkins.  There she was often visited by her husband, who alternately used threats, persuasion, and entreaty, to induce her to return home, but ineffectually.  On Friday night, the 11th of March, he was at the house till a late hour, and did all he could to get the woman back; but she still refusing, he quitted in anger, and made use of various threats.  Next day he again went to the house.  She was resolute as ever against returning, and while two or three women were in the room, he coolly took off his coat, produced a razor, with the blade tied back, seized his wife, and inflicted two wounds on her throat, which caused her immediate death.  Francis was arraigned at the Spring assizes, but the illness of a witness prevented the trial being proceeded with.  Since then he has made one or two attempts to destroy himself—once by suffocation.  Subsequent to his condemnation, however, he manifested a frame of mind befitting his awful situation, and paid great attention to the exhortations of the chaplain, passing a considerable time immediately prior to his execution in the exercises of religion.  He frequently acknowledged the justness of his sentence, and stated that he had no further desire to live.  Several thousands of persons—a large proportion from the Forest of Dean—congregated to witness the awful scene.  The culprit, who manifested extreme weakness and apathy, was assisted to the scaffold, and apparently almost unconscious, was, by the withdrawal of the fatal bolt, launched into eternity.


A County Magistrate Fined.

    At the Wolverhampton Petty Sessions, on Monday, Dr. William Mannix, one of the county magistrates, was charged before W. Warren and G. L. Underhill, Esqrs., with using . . .

abusive and insulting language to Elizabeth Franks, with intent to provoke a breach of the peace.  The complainant stated that she sold baskets in Wolverhampton market.  On Saturday week she saw Dr. Mannix passing the Market Hall, and applied to him for payment of a small account.  He replied he should do nothing of the kind, called her an old wretch, and began to be very abusive.  She then went to her stall.  Dr. Mannix followed her, and said, "You――old wretch, I should like to cut your tongue out of your head."  He returned five times to her, still abusing her, and on the last occasion said, "Well old Billingsgate, have you sold any more baskets yet?"  Complainant made no reply.  She was corroborated by her husband and a girl named Roden.  Mr. Bartlett said that his client denied on his honour as a gentleman, that he had made use of the expressions imputed to him.  The account was one of 20s. for potato pots, an amount which he refused to pay, having never given more than 19s. for the same articles.  Mr. Bartlett also called a boy, who deposed that on the following Monday, Mrs. Frankel had said to him that Dr. Mannix was a villain, and wanted hanging, and that she had called him a rogue to his face.  The chairman (Mr. Warren) said he and his colleagues considered that this was a case which should never have been brought into court.  At the same time they thought there must be a conviction, and inflicted a penalty of 1s. and costs.


Gigantic Alleged Frauds at the Carron Ironworks.

    The Carron works were established as long ago as eighty or ninety years, under special charter.  The company has done a most extensive business in manufacturing iron from the ore, and making various articles out of the iron so manufactured.  It has been in the habit of supplying the Government, to a large extent, with guns, shot, and other military stores.  Mr. Joseph Stainton was manager of the company for some forty years, that is to say, from 1786 till his death in 1825.  He was succeeded by his nephew, Mr. Joseph Dawson, while another nephew, Mr. William Dawson, became managing clerk and assistant.  Mr. Joseph Dawson died in 1850, and Mr. William Dawson reigned in his stead, and this latter individual continues to occupy the throne of the Dawsons and the Staintons.  The managers of the company are also partners of the company, and the government they have set up—we speak of the history of the case as recorded in a summons issued by the Court of Session—is well entitled to the appellation of being a family government; for if we take Mr. Joseph Stainton, the first manager, to be the uncle, we not only find the central administration at Carron falling into the hands of the two nephews, but we have a third nephew, Mr. Henry Dawson, who governs the affairs of the company at Glasgow, and a cousin, Mr. Thomas Crossthwaite, who does the same at Liverpool, while the uncle's brother, Mr. Henry Stainton, was agent at London.  So far, then, the family connection must have been complete; and we shall now see in what way the Stainton and the Dawsons have exercised the stewardship which has been committed to their trust.  Colonel Dundas Maclean brings an action against the manager or managers of the company, or rather against the company itself, which seems to be only one of a series of accusations that affect the management, all of which may have to be investigated.  The Colonel says that the managers did systematically, and for a long number of years, falsify their balance sheets so that the profits of the company might appear to be much less than they really were, and that in consequence of this falsification he sold to the managers twenty shares belonging to himself for 14,000l., a price greatly below their real value.  On this account he demands restitution, and names 20,000l., with legal interest, as the sum which the company should pay to him.  Other individuals have similar claims arising from similar proceedings, and it is held that Mr. Joseph Dawson, the deceased manager, and Mr. Henry Stainton, the London manager, now also dead, and Mr. William Dawson, the present manager, conspired to promote these frauds, and managed among themselves to conceal and misrepresent the true state of the affairs of the company, in order to carry out their design of acquiring for themselves and their relatives the shares of the other partners, at sums far below their real vague, and thus enriching themselves, and maintaining and strengthening the control they had acquired over the company's affairs.  The injured parties say that the affairs of the company have, ever since 1813, been managed by the Staintons and Dawsons, free from that control and superintendence contemplated by the deeds of the co-partnery.  These deeds make provision for the appointment of committees to examine the accounts, but since the year named no committee, as they affirm, has been appointed.  Accordingly, whenever a half-yearly meeting was held, the practice has been for a formal resolution to be passed, declaring that the accounts were all right.  But the accounts, it is positively asserted, were on every occasion all wrong, and how far they were wrong may be judged of when we say that Sir J. G. Craig, the legal adviser of the company, declared, in 1846, that the debts of the company were overstated to the amount of upwards of 130,000l., while the assets were understated to a much larger amount.  He further declared that many articles, such as Bank of England Stock, of the value of 100,000l., were not mentioned in the accounts at all, and though he had written to the manager making these accusations, it is affirmed that the account of the whole affairs, funds, debts, and credits of the company, required by the royal charter to be made up annually, and submitted to inspection, was not made up, or submitted to inspection, during the whole period of Mr. Joseph Dawson's management.

    And why not?  Some published letters of the Staintons and the Dawsons will enable the public to answer the question.  For example, in an epistle which Mr. Joseph Dawson, writing from Carron, sent to Mr. Henry Stainton, the London agent, we not only get an intimation of the existence of wholesale fraud, but of the manner in which the fraud was made to work.  "Dear uncle " says he, "I beg to annex copy of the stock ledger balances, from which you will observe that the profits amount to 15,085l, 10s. 7d.  This we propose to reduce, by transferring 2,500l. from flask goods to pig iron, and reducing the value of the pig iron inventory to that extent; also, by diminishing the inventory of flask goods 1,000l., and by transferring 1,000l. from general charges to the credit of timber, and deducting that amount from the timber inventory; this would leave 10,085l. 10s. 7d. for the last six months.  As this sum is still rather too much, it might be further reduced by transferring from 1,100l. to 1,500l. from general charges and flask goods to great forge and bar iron, and by diminishing their respective inventories to the same amount, or by transferring so much to the credit of the insurance accounts."  To which Mr. Stainton replied that he "would rather not touch the insurance accounts, if you can help it, as some of the partners have their eyes upon these sums, and may think they are becoming too large to be left at rest.  I prefer operating upon flask goods so extensively, rather than upon general charges, as they are fully aware the profit upon the warehouses is carried to this account, and they will expect to see something from it.  Some of them may wonder the profit is so much upon last half-year; if anything is said upon that subject your answer is ready—that it contains the profit on the warehouses for the whole year; but unless the question be asked, I would say nothing."  And so, when the balance-sheet for the year in which these epistles were written was presented to the general meeting, the profit was reduced from 15,0581. 10s. 7d., as it really was, to 9,585l. 10s. 7d.—a difference of between 5,000l. and 6,000l.  This difference might have been turned into great gain by those who wished to be the gainers, and if the same management went on for a succession of years, some handsome fortunes, one would think, might have been realised.  Colonel Maclean declares his opinion to be, that in this way there were concealed from the knowledge of the shareholders, and in particular from himself, between the years 1838 to 1847—that is to say, during ten years—profits realised to the company to an amount of greatly more than 175,000l.!  One thing is certain, that Mr. Henry Stainton must have died a wealthy man, for it seems that the company took proceedings against his executors to recover sums represented in his accounts for which there were no vouchers, sums put down as "sundry charges," "expenses of warehouses," and so forth, and his executors, in the course of last year, compromised the matter by the payment of the incredible sum of 220,000l.!  Mr. Henry

Stainton must, indeed, have been rich.  As agent in London he was in the habit of paying himself, by commission upon the sales of the company, not less than 5,000l. or 6,000l. per annum, and there were other resources for him in the business, if the story of Colonel Maclean is true, than the amount of his commission and the gains arising from the falsification of the accounts.  It appears that after the death of Mr. Joseph Dawson, a dissension arose between the Staintons and the Dawsons, and the company gained a sum of 96,000l, by this quarrel, for it brought out the fact that there was a "Secret Reserve Fund" to that extent, of which the company knew nothing, and which was fed from two corrupt channels.  First, the manager at Carron, in despatching military stores to London, was in the habit of invoicing a less quantity than was shipped, but the agent received payment for the whole quantity sent; and, second, Carron consignments were debited with breakages when there were no breakages.  So the amounts thus gained formed that reserve fund of which, as is presumed, the shareholders would have been entirely ignorant, but for the little feud which sprang up between the rival members of the new Rob Roy family.  Indeed, as a whole, the narrative of frauds affecting the Carron Company is almost beyond belief.

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    T
HE LATE MELANCHOLY SUICIDE IN THE SERPENTINE.―An investigation has taken place before Mr. Langham, deputy coroner for Westminster, at the Board-room of the Workhouse, St. George's, Hanover-square, on view of the body of the unknown female, who was found floating on the Serpentine on Wednesday week, and removed while still breathing to the receiving house of the Royal Humane Society, where she died from the effects of drowning at ten o'clock the following morning.  The body of the deceased has been identified by her relations as Emma Williams, twenty years of age, in the employment of a Mrs. Roland, as a sempstress, at 68, Great Titchfield-street, Marylebone.  As it appeared from the evidence of various witnesses, the case was an extremely melancholy one, and a married sister, while giving her evidence, was suffering under great distress of mind, and frequently burst into an agony of tears.  The deceased was an orphan, of a naturally cheerful disposition, steady, and respectable; but as her relatives were poor, she was compelled to get her living as a sempstress, and had toiled constantly at her needle, from twelve to sixteen hours daily, with her late employer, for the past five years, and earned upon an average from ten to twelve shillings per week, from which she had to pay her brother-in-law, with whom she boarded and lodged, at 30, University-street, seven shillings per week.  Recently she complained very much of her eyes, and occasionally had been somewhat depressed in spirits in consequence of their weakness, and at times told her sister that if they should fail her, as she feared they would, she could not tell what she should do for a living, as she then would be prevented from following her occupation, and had no friend in the wide world to depend upon, and according to the statement of her sister, she worked very hard that she might keep herself respectable.  About an hour and a half previous to the time she was found in the Serpentine she left her work for the night in her usual good health: and spirits, and about three minutes before the supposed rash act she was seen by a young man, named Bollenot, walking rapidly across the bridge of the Serpentine from the direction of Kensington.  It was very dark and foggy at the time, and in consequence he lost sight of her almost immediately after she passed him, but believed that she jumped into the river from one of the bridge parapets, and his attention and that of others was first attracted by a loud splash.  Immediately afterwards he met a man and two females on the bridge.  Verdict—"Deceased died from the effects of drowning, but how she got into the water there was not sufficient evidence to show."
    T
HE BURY BOTTLING CASE.—At Liverpool, the prisoners Hardman and Booth, convicted of the abduction of a voter at the last election at Bury, were brought up for sentence.  His lordship said he wished it to go forth, that in whatever court he sat, on every offender of this description, he would inflict the full punishment allowed by the law.  In this case Hardman was the prime mover, and therefore would receive the heaviest punishment.  The sentence upon him was twelve months imprisonment, and upon Booth (who, it appeared, took only a secondary part in the transaction) nine months.

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    T
HE POPLAR POISONING CASE.—A proclamation has been issued by Government, offering a reward of 100l. for the apprehension of George Frederick Royal, alias Reynolds, alias Regnold, who stands charged on the Coroner's warrant with the murder at Poplar, by poison, of a young single women with whom he cohabited, named Zipporah Wright.  A full description is added of the murderer's personal appearance and the dress be wore at the time he absconded.

    S
ERIOUS CHARGE AGAINST TWO TRADESMEN.—Mark Butt, a master tradesman, and Henry Baily a grocer, of Bristol, have been examined before the magistrates of that town, and committed for trial on a charge of criminally assaulting Mrs. Ann Cottle, the wife of a butcher living at Hill's-place, Newfoundland-street, Bristol.

    M
ANSLAUGHTER BY A HOMŒOPATHIC DOCTOR.—Mr. William Rae, a homœopathic doctor, living at No. 36, Westminster Square, St. George's Road, Southwark, has been committed for trial on the Coroner's warrant, charged with having caused the death of Mrs. Betsy Pool, a lady residing at Pimlico, who expired from excessive hemorrhage, a few hours after giving birth to a male child.  Bail was accepted for the accused.

    C
HARGE OF MURDER ON BOARD AN AMERICAN SHIP.—A man named Charles Boutell, mate of the "Conqueror," an American vessel, lying in the port of Liverpool, was charged last Saturday, before the magistrates of that place, with having murdered Peter Antonio, a seaman on board the same ship.  An inquest had previously been held on the body, at which evidence was given to show that Antonio had died from the effects of injuries he had received from Boutell and the ship's carpenter; but, as the two latter were American subjects, the court came to the decision that the case was beyond their jurisdiction, and the jury therefore returned an open verdict.  In the mean time, however, the American consul at Liverpool represented the matter to the American representative in London, who communicated with the English Secretary of State, and a warrant was made out for the apprehension of Boutell.  The prisoner's counsel asked the Liverpool magistrates for a remand of the case until Tuesday, which was granted.

    R
OBBERY ON BOARD SHIP.—Jacob Woodley and James Devine, seamen, were brought before Mr. Yardley, at the Thames police-court, charged with stealing twenty-eight bottles of ale from a cask on board the American ship "Namlang," lying in the London Docks.  Mr. Roland, the chief mate of the vessel, stated that it contained several casks of bottled ale amongst its other cargo, all of which were safe in the hold at one o'clock at noon on Friday week.  About eleven o'clock at night, on the same day, the police called the mate's attention to a cask that had been broken open, and, on proceeding to investigate the matter, he found that no less than twenty-eight bottles of ale had been stolen from it.  He then proceeded to the forecastle of the ship, and saw the two prisoners, one of whom did not belong to the "Namlang," lying down in their berths.  He searched the forecastle, and found six empty ale bottles in the bulkhead, three, full of ale, standing by the chain-box close by, seven more full ones in a cask near that which had been broken into, and one in Woodley's chest.  The mate questioned the last-named prisoner as to who had been in the hold; and he replied that he did not know, while the other man impudently inquired "what was up?" without taking any further heed of the matter.  They were both, however, given into custody.  The deck of the ship was strewed, in various places, with ale bottles, some full, others empty, plainly indicating that the prisoners had been carousing in the earlier part of the evening.  They had likewise been seen by a police-constable on a bridge in the dock after the gates were closed—an unlawful proceeding on the part of a seaman.  Mr. Yardley committed them both for trial.

 
――――♦――――

PAGE6.
 

THE TRIAL OF DR. SMETHURST.—THE VERDICT.

    The following appeared last week in our Second Edition:—

    The summing-up was resumed on the 18th, and during its progress the prisoner two or three times interrupted the Judge, to correct, as he stated it, some of the assertions made by his Lordship.  With respect to no poison having been discovered at the residence of Smethurst, the Judge remarked:―
    "All the bottles were seized, and no arsenic, or antimony, or other poison, was found in them.  It would by no means be safe to presume anything against the prisoner because he had an opportunity of destroying evidence, and the jury must not act entirely on the evidence which had been produced; but, if they were satisfied that antimony and arsenic had been administered by him to the deceased, some light might be thrown on the circumstance that no poison was found, by the fact of the prisoner returning to the house on the Monday evening, and having access to the parlour and bedroom."

    At the conclusion of the summing-up,

    The Prisoner said: "I wish to clear up some facts."

    The Lord Chief Baron: "I cannot allow you to do so, except through your counsel."

    The Prisoner: "I wish to state that Mr. Serjeant Ballantine is acquainted with the whole of the circumstances connected with the marriage.  I forwarded to him the whole facts as early as I could after I was arrested, and the statement is now in his hands.  It shows that my wife (Isabella Bankes) had a reversionary interest in a large sum of money."

    The jury then, at ten minutes to four o'clock, retired to consider their verdict; and, after an absence of three-quarters of an hour, returned into court with a verdict of GUILTY.

    The Lord Chief Baron then put on the black cap, and the Clerk of the Arraigns asked the prisoner if he had anything to say why judgment should not be passed upon him.

    The prisoner immediately commenced addressing the Judge and jury.  He said that the whole of the witnesses had distorted the true facts of the case in such a manner that his life had been sacrificed. Dr. Julius he especially condemned, and the assertion of the sister of the deceased, that she was never able to see her sister Isabella alone, except for two or three minutes at a time, was, he said, entirely false.  "She knew she had every opportunity of being with her sister as often and as long as she pleased, and, had the witnesses spoke truth, such would have appeared in the evidence.  With respect to the non-engagement of a nurse, it had been put as if he objected to such a proceeding; but nothing could be so far from the truth.  He had been taken into custody, and placed before a magistrate, charged with poisoning his wife wife; but, notwithstanding all that was said against him, he was admitted to bail on the first occasion.  In not taking steps to procure a nurse, he was only acting according to the direction of the magistrates as they prohibited him from in any manner interfering with the deceased on his return to his home, and it was certainly true that he had said that those persons who chose to engage the nurse must bear the expense.  With respect to the motive for the crime attributed to him—namely, his wishing to obtain possession of the money belonging to the deceased—it was false.  He had no occasion to seek the death of the lady, as he could have obtained her money, if such had been his object, without committing murder.  Great stress had been laid on his marriage with Miss Bankes, and throughout the trial it had been said that it was not his intention to remain with Miss Bankes after he had obtained all she was possessed of.  Now, the truth was, that his attachment to her was strong, and his connection with her he hoped would have been lasting.  The marriage at Kennington Church was as much the act of the deceased as his.  It was only done in order that she might appear to her friends as a married woman, and the remark 'that it would be all right soon,' alluded to the death of his first wife, who was upwards of seventy years of age."  The prisoner then went on in a rambling strain, condemning everybody who had given evidence against him.

    The Lord Chief Baron, in pronouncing sentence of death, said he agreed with the verdict; and the convict was removed from the dock, exclaiming that Dr. Julius was his murderer, and calling on God to witness his innocence.

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    THE RICHMOND MURDER.— After the sentence of death had been passed upon Dr. Smethurst, the warrant of the court, signed by the Lord Chief Baron, was handed to Mr. Jonas, the governor of Newgate, for his removal to the county gaol of Surrey, Horsemonger-lane; but as a great number of persons were waiting in the Old Bailey anxious to catch a glimpse of the prisoner, an ingenious mode was resorted to in order to avoid confusion.  A cab was driven to the door of the gaol, in which it was of course expected that he would be taken away, but instead of this the prisoner was taken by Mr. Jonas and Humphreys, the principal warder, through the courts and by the entrance to the New Court into the Old Bailey, where a cab was in readiness, and he was safely lodged in Horsemonger-lane gaol before the crowd were aware that he had left Newgate.  Since the prisoner has been confined in Newgate he has upon several occasions appeared desirous to enter into conversation with those about him upon the subject of his crime, and he appeared very curious to impress them with the idea that there was no foundation for the charge of murder.  There is, however, this singular resemblance between the prisoner and William Palmer, that he evidently has some reservation one his mind, as he invariably declares that arsenic was not the cause of death, and it will be remembered that down to the last moment Palmer declared that Cook did not die of strychnine, and that it was reasonably inferred from the observations he made that some other description of poison had been made use of.  On the way from Newgate to Horsemonger-lane gaol, Dr. Smethurst again repeatedly declared his innocence, and asserted, as he did before sentence was pronounced against him, that the charge had been made up from ill-feeling towards him; and it appears that since he has been in confinement he has repeatedly made use of the expression that Dr. Taylor would rather his life should be sacrificed than that his own reputation should be in any way affected or injured.

    T
HE PAST LIFE OF SMETHURST.―The convict who at present lies in a position so perilous is the son of a small schoolmaster, and was born in the neighbourhood of Coventry, in the year 1801.  There is, however, no pretext for the allegation that his father was tutor to the Earl of Dysart, nor does there appear to be any better foundation for his assertion that he is a regularly educated medical man.  According to his own account, as detailed in-a boarding-house where he lived, he married his present wife from feelings of gratitude for her attention to him when ill during the period of his career as a medical student; but there is no proof that he originally was more than a chemist, or possessed a higher professional degree than that of the Apothecaries' Company and a German degree.  He undoubtedly, however, carried on medical practice at Stockwell, Camberwell, and various places adjoining London.  But it was at Ramsgate where he practised longest and was best known; he carried on business there for several years, and it is but fair to add that, except being considered somewhat closefisted and fond of money, he bore a tolerably respectable character.  After residing there for some time he left for Germany, with the double view of placing himself under the celebrated hydropathist Priessnitz, for the purpose of obtaining relief from a lameness with which he was afflicted, and of acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the system to enable him to practise it.  On his return to Ramsgate he not only opened a cold water cure establishment, but published a book upon the subject.  The latter is entitled "Hydropatheria." The book is rather respectable as a compilation, and it is somewhat remarkable that when absent in Germany his practice was, at his request, taken care of by a gentleman before whom he was, eventually brought at Richmond on a charge of murder.  But at Ramsgate he never got into what is termed "fashionable practice," and he consequently removed to the establishment of Moor-park, in Surrey.  After keeping this for several years he eventually sold it to advantage, and led a comparatively private life until arrested on the charge for which he has recently been condemned.

    A P
ROPOSED MEMORIAL.—The case of Dr. Smethurst has since the trial, assumed a new and important phase, having called forth the opinions of numerous scientific men, who have come to the conclusion that there was no evidence to show that any poison whatever had been administered to Miss Banker, and that all the appearances described by Dr. Julius, Dr. Todd, and others, are consistent with natural disease, more especially dysentery. The . . . .

feeling that the verdict was not justified by the evidence is fast gaining ground; and it is stated that a public memorial to the Secretary of State, for a remission of the extreme sentence of the law, will be drawn up.  Much confidence exists that Lord Chief Baron Pollock, although in summing up he appeared to have taken a strong view of the case adverse to the prisoner, will not oppose the application.  The brother of Dr. Smethurst is the only person who has visited him since his conviction, and to him he declares his entire innocence; and so impressed with that belief is the convict's brother, who is a gentleman of some considerable property, that he has determined no exertion or expense shall be wanting to effect a commutation of the sentence.  On Tuesday Mr. Humphreys, who has acted as the solicitor of Dr. Smethurst, endeavoured to obtain an interview with his client, but found that by the regulations of the prison he could not have an interview with him without an order from one of the visiting justices on the rota.  He has written to the visiting justices accordingly, and the request will be granted as a matter of course.  The conduct of Dr. Smethurst from the time of his conviction to the present, has been uniform, and, though depressed, he believes the sentence will not be carried into effect.  Tuesday, in the week after next, is the day fixed for the execution. [ED. ― see historical note below this page].

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The Duke of Sutherland charged with Libel.

A very extraordinary charge of libel against the Duke of Sutherland has just been decided in Scotland, at the Court of Session (Second Division), before the Lord Justice Clerk and a jury.  The plaintiff was the Rev. Dugald Mackellar, minister of the parish of Clyne, in the county of Sutherland; the action involving the character of the clergyman, whose damages were laid at 1,000l.  From the high position and influence of the defendant, who is the sole heritor of the parish of Clyne, as he is of the majority of the parishes of Sutherlandshire, the case has created much interest throughout the county generally.  It appeared the plaintiff was inducted minister of the parish of Clyne in 1844; the living is a small one, consisting of ninety-three quarters of corn, and 23l, in money, besides manse, garden, and glebe.  In that parish his grace customarily gave a small farm immediately adjoining to the incumbent, who resides at the manse; and this farm having been possessed by the plaintiff's predecessors, as ministers of the parish, for many years past, was supposed to be inseparable from the glebe, although it still remained in the power of the duke.  Shortly after the plaintiff's induction he got possession of the farm, and continued to possess it till Whitsunday, 1857, during which time he expended a good deal of money in its improvement.  The Sutherland estates were at that time managed by Mr. George Gunn, of Rhives (since dead ), who had "great power and authority," as factor.  For a time the minister and the factor were on friendly terms; but, by-and-by, Mr. Gunn's feelings appeared to change, and latterly he treated the minister with "dislike and hostility."  In December, 1855, a question was brought before the local church court in regard to the repairs of the minister's manse, when a particular small house was claimed by the plaintiff as his property, whereas the factor maintained that it belonged to the farm.  Some time afterwards the Duke of Sutherland and the factor obtained a decree in the sheriff court ejecting the minister from the small house; but, shortly afterwards, he sent a letter to the factor stating that, in the event of his being allowed to continue in possession of the farm for a year, he would agree to depart from any alleged claims of meliorations for any improvements executed by him upon the farm.  Mr. Gunn accepted the conditions.  Matters continued as formerly till the spring of 1857, when a new action of removal was obtained by the noble proprietor against the minister, who, although there was no written lease, had been under the impression that the farm was to go along with the glebe.  In course of the litigation, which terminated in the removal process, the minister served a note of suspension upon the noble duke, who lodged answers to the same, in which statements appeared to the effect that "during the last few years the complainant (Mr. Mackellar) had conducted himself in a most discreditable and unbecoming manner for a minister and brawling with an attacking and assaulting parishioners, for which offences he was criminally tried and convicted in the sheriff court, and suspended from the exercise of clerical functions in the church courts.  He has also used threatening and abusive language to others of his parishioners, for which he was found liable to them in damages, by all which conduct he has set the worst example in his parish, utterly destroying his usefulness in the church, and disgusting and dispersing the greater part of his congregation."  These statements formed the issue for the jury, who were desired to consider whether they were "false and calumnious," and were "maliciously inserted in the said answers, to the loss, injury, and damage of the pursuer."  In the course of the pleadings it was contended by the Solicitor-General, as counsel for the plaintiff, that there was malice on the part of the deceased factor, Mr. Gunn, against Mr. Mackellar, and that the Duke of Sutherland was responsible for the act of his representative.  This point formed the gist of the whole action.  The question submitted to the jury, by the Lord Justice Clerk, was—whether they thought there was any proof of a malicious motive on the, part of the Duke of Sutherland, when the jury unanimously gave a verdict of "No malicious intention" on the part of the noble defendant.

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Alleged Case of Poisoning by a German Physician.

    Mr. William Carter, the coroner for East Surrey, held a long and painful inquiry it the Rosemary Branch Tavern, Peckham, respecting the circumstances attending the death of Alice Julia Wood, aged six months, the infant daughter of Mr. Walter Wood, of Camden-terrace, Southampton-street, Camberwell.—Mr. Walter Wood, a printer on the Weekly Dispatch newspaper, said that the deceased was his child.  It had been ailing from its birth, and was fed on farinaceous food by the nurse.  The mother was unable to suckle the child, which might to some extent account for its emaciated condition.  The deceased was seen by a surgeon named Westlake, and afterwards by a physician, Simon Weil, living in Broad-street-buildings, City, who prescribed for the child, but it died on Thursday last.—Ann Booth, of 29, Trafalgar-street, Walworth, said that she had known the deceased child.  After its birth she attended it.  The mother was unable to suckle it on account of her health.  She last saw the child alive at half-past eleven o'clock on Monday night, when she did not appear any worse than she had been for some time past.  She had procured four powders from Mr. Westlake, a chemist, which were administered to the child; but Mr. Westlake refused to give anything more without a physician's prescription.—The coroner here inquired whether Mr. Weil was in court, and was answered by that gentleman in the affirmative.—Examination in chief continued: Witness was to administer a teaspoonful every three hours of the mixture made up, until her bowels became composed, as she was suffering from a severe attack of diarrhoea.  The medicine was made up from the prescriptions by Mr. Smith, of Southampton-street.  The deceased was able and did take food, such as arrowroot milk from a bottle, in her presence at half-past nine at night, when she left. deceased in the care of its mother.  Dr. Weil prescribed for her in writing, and the mixture was made up by Mr. Smith.—Mr. Weil said, from the first, that he thought the child could not live.—Mr. Wood further added that two months after birth the deceased was vaccinated, and she continued to lose flesh from that time.  The nurse Booth left his service last Monday night, and the child was then taken charge of by its mother.  On Wednesday night, in consequence of a change in the health of the child, he sent for Mr. Edmunds, who attended promptly.  He believed that the child died from some internal complaint.—The learned Coroner said that he had received a letter from Mr. Edmunds, to the effect that to the best of his belief the child had died from an overdose of opium.—Mr. J. W. Edmunds, of Montague-cottage, Southampton-street, Camberwell, said that on Wednesday night he was called to see the deceased, and found, upon his arrival, the head and neck blue, and the eyes wide open.  The child appeared quite calm, and . . .

. . . he came to the conclusion that the appearances were far front being natural; and he was told that a physician had prescribed for her, and upon reading the prescription handed to him, the mixture was proved to be an antidote for diarrhœa, but the witness thought the opium in the liquid was considerably over the quantity that ought to have been given.  He prescribed beef tea and wine for the one, and also gave some stimulating medicine which did not contain opium.—Mr. Smith, chemist and druggist, of Southampton-street, said that he made up a prescription for diarrhœa.  He did not think the quantity of laudanum in the mixture would be injurious to a child; but at the same time he should not like to give it to his own child, for it might prove prejudicial to a child of that age.  If the infant was well, and able to eat food, no danger was to be apprehended if the opium was rightly measured.  His opinion was that the child died from the effects of laudanum—The jury, after consulting, decided upon adjourning the case for a post mortem examination to be made.

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EXTRAORDINARY BIGAMY CASE.

    A lady applied to the Hon. G. C. Norton, at the Lambeth police-court, for his advice respecting the conduct of her husband, to whom she had not been then quite two months married, and whose name she had so far forgotten that she could not spell it, and had actually been obliged to go home to provide herself with the marriage certificate to refresh her memory; who she said had conducted himself in an extraordinary manner towards her, and quite different to his professions before marriage.  The lady had represented that she had first met her husband at the St. James's Hall, at one of Barnum's entertainments; that he represented himself as the son of a nobleman, and a captain in the army, made fierce love to her, said he would shoot her or himself unless she consented to have him, and offered with his hand a carriage and 2,000l.  The lady went on further to state that believing his representations she gave her consent, and they were married at the most fashionable of all places for aristocratic marriages, St. George's, Hanover-square, on the 28th of June, and that though nearly two months had passed over, there was no sign of the new carriage, nor the slightest appearance of the 2,000l., or any of the nice little presents so lavishly hinted at before the commencement of the "honeymoon."  On the contrary, the soi-disant Hon. Captain William Denbigh Sloper Harrison commenced a course most distasteful to his wife of going out fashionably dressed in clothes purchased at her expense, stopping out days and nights together, and coming home in garments much inferior in texture and appearance to those he wore when leaving home, and in addition to all making use of threats of a disagreeable character.

    Mr. Norton put such questions to the lady that if answered in the affirmative would enable him to grant a summons against the new-made husband, but the lady declared she was not in fear of him, and her complaint in the end tapered to the simple question as to whether she was compelled to supply her husband with clothes while he was in the habit of disposing of them.

    Mr. Norton told her that having married him he was entitled to all her property, unless such portions as were settled on herself by trustees, and advised her to call in the aid of her friends, and make them the medium. of adjusting the matrimonial differences between herself and her husband.  The lady applicant, however, did not approve of this mode of adjustment, and said she should start to Brighton and leave her husband, if he should think proper, to dispose of her household goods, amounting at least to 400l., and this ended the matter.  Fortunately for the ends of justice the particulars of that application obtained a wide publicity, and that publicity will be the means of checking and no doubt terminating the career of a heartless, prowling impostor.

    On Monday evening, when the usual night charges were disposed of, a person of slim figure, shabby genteel appearance, rather light complexion, meagre visage, with a thin half-fledged moustache on the upper lip, while the other parts of the face were both hairless and beardless, and the eyes light and devoid of the slightest spark of animation, and altogether of a most spoony-like appearance, was placed at the bar before the Hon. G. C. Norton, on a charge off intermarrying with Mrs. Jane Hayes, a widow lady, his former wife Sophia being then and still alive.

    Chief Clerk to the prisoner: What is your name?

    Prisoner (in a thin shrill voice): William Marshall, sir.

    Chief Clerk: Have you no other name than William Marshall?  Is your name not Harrison?

    Prisoner: No, sir.  My name is William Denbigh Sloper Marshall.

    Chief Clerk: Marshall and not Harrison?

    Prisoner: Yes—yes, sir.

    Both wives, persons of lady-like appearance and manners, were present, and the prisoner, on entering the dock, cast a, hasty glance at each, and during the investigation he frequently endeavoured to put on a benignant smile while looking towards them but both studiously avoided looking at him, and seemed thoroughly ashamed of having been betrayed into marriage with a person whose appearance and conduct seemed so thoroughly contemptible.

    The first witness examined was Charles Revill, one of the summoning officers belonging to the court, who said: In consequence of information I received, I last evening accompanied the two ladies now present to the house, No. 15, Princes-place, Kennington Cross, and asked for the prisoner.  I was told he was out at the time, but was expected in in a few minutes, and the ladies went inside, and saw his second wife, Mrs. Hayes.  I went into the house also, and in a short time the prisoner knocked, and was admitted by his servant; and on seeing me he seemed very much surprised.  I told him not to be alarmed at me, for that I was about to introduce him to his first wife.

    Mr. Norton: Had his first wife seen him at this time?

    Revill: Yes, sir, she saw him approach the front door, and at once recognised him as the person she had been married to, and therefore, I knew I was right in what I had said.

    Mr. Norton: Well, go on.

    Revill: Well, sir, on seeing his first wife he seemed perfectly paralysed, and dropping down on the couch by her side, he was not able to utter a word.  I then told him Mrs. Hayes, his second wife, charged him with getting married to her while he had another wife living, and asked him if it were true, and he replied, yes, and he was very sorry for it, and that he must be a great blackguard for acting so.  I then took him into custody.

    The certificates of the two marriages were here handed to the magistrate, and from them it appeared that the prisoner, who then gave the name of William Denbigh Sloper Marshall, described himself as late captain in the army, bachelor, and son to Francis Marshall, shipowner, had been married at Paddington Church to Sophia Frost Dawson, widow, on the 3rd of July, 1858; and that on the 28th June in the present year, he was married at St. George's, Hanover-square, to Jane Hayes, widow, in the name of William Denbigh Sloper Harrison, described as a bachelor, and hon. captain in the army, son of Francis Harrison Lord Denbigh, shipowner.

    A lady, who sat between both wives, here rose, and with much animation said: Sir, my sister beside me had the misfortune, as your worship will see by the certificate in your hand, to marry the prisoner, unfortunately without consulting her friends on the subject, and soon after spending a great deal of her money, he deserted her in a most heartless and scandalous manner.  He represented himself as captain in the army, who had seen great service, and possessed six medals, received for distinguished services rendered his country (laughter), and was possessed of considerable property, but, unfortunately, had lost much of it in speculation.

    Mr. Norton: Do you know, madam, whether your sister ever saw these Crimean medals?

    Lady: No, sir, she told me she had not, for that they were in pawn at Attenborough's, in Piccadilly. (Renewed laughter upon which the prisoner drawled out, "Oh, how cruel!")

    Mr. Norton (to the prisoner): Do you deny that you are the person described in this certificate as the William Denbigh Sloper Marshall who was married to Mrs. Sophia Davison?

 

ED. ― a note on the Smethurst case. On 3rd May, 1859, Miss Isabella Bankes, the mistress of Dr. Smethurst, died suddenly following an unknown illness and her doctors came to the conclusion that she had been poisoned with arsenic. Smethurst was charged with her murder. During his trial the expert witness for the prosecution was forced to admit that he had used impure copper during his testing, and so the arsenic he found had in fact been introduced by his own hand. Despite this flaw in the testimony, the trial judge's heavily prejudiced summing up led to Smethurst being convicted of murder. The verdict was denounced in the medical press as unjust, leading to the Home Secretary taking the unprecedented step of submitting all the facts to a well-known surgeon for an opinion as to the justice of the verdict. As a result Smethurst was reprieved and subsequently received a free pardon ― he was later convicted of bigamy and served a year in jail. Smethurst took legal action to recover the money Miss Bankes had left him in her will and having succeeded, returned to live with his wife.

 

――――♦――――

PAGE 7.
 

. . . Prisoner (in a whining tone): No, sir; but I am sorry, for I know it was very wicked of me, very wicked indeed.

    Mr. Norton: And do you acknowledge, also, that you were the person who was married to Mrs. Jane Hayes, and to whom this other certificate refers?

    Prisoner: I do, sir; I know it was wicked.

    Inspector Emmerson, of the P division, said he had become acquainted some time ago with the history of the prisoner, and wished to say that his real name was Slopes, and not Marshall nor Harrison, and he was the illegitimate child of a female who subsequently married a man named Marshall.  This person was a dealer in bottles, and was engaged in bottling ale and beer for different people.

    Prisoner: I beg your pardon, he was a wine merchant, and supplied Windsor Castle, Buckingham House, and the Pavilion, with wines and ales.

    Mr. Norton: And does the fact of your father or step-father supplying Buckingham Palace or Windsor Castle justify you in assuming the term honourable? (Laughter.)

    Prisoner: Perhaps not.

    Mr. Emmerson: What I state, your worship, is quite correct, and it is singular enough that on one occasion the prisoner went with his step-father to bottle some ale at the house of a nobleman, and became so intimate with one of the young ladies that an elopement was arranged, and would in all probability have succeeded, had not one of the letters of the lady fallen into the hands of the prisoner's grandfather, who forwarded it to the nobleman, her father.

    Prisoner: Oh, how can you say all this, you ought to be ashamed of yourself.

    Mr. Norton: You are a nice person to moralise. (Laughter.)

    Prisoner (whining): Well, your worship, it's not true.

    Mr. Norton: Is it true that the prisoner has a third wife?

    Revill, the officer: I can't say at present, sir, but it is strongly suspected.  If your worship remands the prisoner I shall be able to find it out by the next examination.

The prisoner was remanded for further evidence, and a more insignificant or sneaking person never stood at or was removed from a bar of justice.

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CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS.

FATAL ACCIDENT TO A GLASGOW TOURIST AT THE TROSSACHS.—We (Glasgow Herald) regret to announce the death of Mr. James Anderson, of Messrs. James Anderson and Co., calenderers, 170, Buchanan-street, a gentleman well known and much respected in this city.  It appears that on Saturday Mr. Anderson had gone with several others upon an excursion to the Trossachs.  On reaching Inversnaid, Mr. Anderson, in consequence of the regular day coach being crowded, hired a conveyance to carry him to the Trossachs, and was accompanied by a lady, said to be his wife, and Mr. Bissett, the representative of an English commercial house.  The road being very rough, and in some places precipitous—and at one part more than usually so—the horse shied and started off at a furious pace.  The two gentlemen jumped from the vehicle, but Mr. Anderson seems to have sustained such injury that his death must have been instantaneous, and Mr. Bissett and the lady were also very severely hurt.  The latter is not expected to live.  The driver has also sustained several injuries.

T
HE TERRIBLE RAILWAY ACCIDENT IN AMERICA.—The following is the account given of the terrible railway accident near Albany, by Mr. J. D. Dexter, a journalist, who was one of the passengers:—"About half-past six o'clock, the train, which was running at the rate of fifteen miles an hour, arrived at the bridge.  I was sitting in the forward passenger car, about one quarter the distance from the rear of the car, when I felt the engine apparently strike something.  Looking forward through one of the windows, I beheld the baggage cars dashing into the chasm, which was some sixty feet deep.  I immediately clutched the window and braced myself for the expected shock.  In a moment the passenger car in which I was, was following the baggage cars into the water; the seats began to fly in every direction; one struck me in the head and neck, loosening my hold and driving me with great force to the opposite side of the car, where, fortunately, I got my arm into another window, and held on firmly until the crisis was over.  When the car struck the bottom the seats and all the passengers except myself were driven by the force of the crash, which was tremendous, to the lower end of the car and into the water.  The front end of the car was broken to atoms for about one third of its length, the rear car pitching in behind and striking the bottom of the car which preceded it, and which stood nearly perpendicular upon its end in the water, crushing still further the forward passenger car, and causing it to fall back directly on the top of the rear car, which then stood at an angle of some ninety degrees, one end resting against the abutment of the bridge.  I then made my way out of the window to which I was clinging, and which was some twenty feet above the surface of the water, to the edge of which I lowered myself by means of the windows.  Here I found the passengers, shattered timbers, broken seats, baggage, etc., in one amalgamated mass, which completely choked up the chasm.  I immediately hastened to render whatever assistance I could to my fellow passengers, which was a work of no little difficulty and danger, owing to the position of the fragments of the broken cars.  The scene was one which utterly defies description; the shrieks of the wounded, the moans of the dying and agonized cries of help from all quarters were enough to daunt the bravest.  I noticed one young lady lying partially under water, with a large piece of timber across her neck, whom I supposed at first sight to be dead; she was bent in the water in such a way that just her head and shoulders were visible; on removing the timber to relieve others, I found to my great joy that she was still alive and almost entirely uninjured.  One man, who fell under the tender of the engine, had one leg broken, and was entirely covered with rubbish; he was for some time wildly shrieking for help before I could ascertain whence the sound proceeded.  At length I crawled over a portion of one of the broken cars, and commenced clearing away the wood and broken portions of the tender, until I discovered him just above the surface of the water, succeeding, after much labour, in extricating him from his dreadful position."

    F
RIGHTFUL SUICIDE THROUGH JEALOUSY IN ST. PANCRAS.—On Tuesday afternoon a painful excitement prevailed in the neighbourhood of Charlton-street, Somers Town, St. Pancras, in consequence of a rumour that a married woman, named Susan Baggs, living at 70 in that street, had committed a most determined act of self-destruction, by leaping from the attic window of the house in which she resided.  It appeared that the husband of the unfortunate female had gone to the Crystal Palace to witness the Foresters' fete, and that she suspected he was there in company with another female.  She was observed subsequent to his departure to be in a desponding state.  About one o'clock she went up to an upper room, from the window of which she precipitated herself.  An alarm was at once raised, as she had been seen by some persons to do so, when several ran to her assistance in the back garden, where she lay in a state of insensibility, there being a quantity of blood upon the ground.  A medical gentleman was sent for, who promptly attended.  He recommended her immediate removal to the University College Hospital, where she was at once conveyed in a cab.  Her case, however, was pronounced a hopeless one by the medical officials, which unfortunately proved too true, as she died in about an hour after her admission.  She was in the 27th year of her age.

    A
CCIDENT ON THE GLASGOW AND SOUTH-WESTERN RAILWAY.—An alarming accident occurred last week to the first ordinary train from Ayr to Glasgow, near Milliken Park Station.  The train was seen about four miles from the station approaching in the direction of Glasgow, when the accident took place.  Out of thirteen carriages, which formed the train, eight were thrown off the rails.  The others ran down the embankment, which is six feet deep, and maintained their position on the wheels.  The last carriage remained on the line off the rails, while the luggage van and the carriage next the engine kept the rails.  Medical assistance being procured, only six persons were found to have suffered, and none were seriously injured.

    COLLISION ON THE LANCASTER AND PRESTON RAILWAY.―About a quarter before six o'clock on Tuesday last a collision took place at the Maudland Station, Preston, on the Lancaster and Preston Railway, between an engine crossing the Lancashire and Preston line of rails, which at this point intersects the rails leading to the above-named station, and a goods train from the north coming up at a rather rapid rate.  Fortunately no one was injured, as the men in charge of each engine leaped off the tenders a few seconds before the collision.  Several rails were displaced, and the line was not sufficiently cleared to allow of uninterrupted traffic for some hours.

    F
RIGHTFUL EXPLOSION OF GAS.—On the 20th inst., at an early hour, an explosion occurred at the residence of Mr. Wright, Earl-court, Brompton.  The family being out, and the female servants, smelling a strong smell of gas, thought it advisable to call in George Perry, a lamplighter.  On going upstairs he tried the various gas-pipes with a light, when a most tremendous explosion took place, blowing the roof off, and completely burying the unfortunate man in the ruins.  Help being summoned he was extricated and taken to Saint George's Hospital, where it was found that amputation of his leg was necessary, and he now lies in a very precarious condition.

    A
NOTHER EXPLOSION.—On Saturday last an explosion took place at the percussion cap manufactory of Messrs. F. and A. Ludlow, in Birmingham, but happily unattended with loss of life.  At about a quarter past twelve o'clock at noon, it appears that three of the workpeople were dining in an outhouse, when an explosion took place  They were immediately thrown to the ground and literally buried in the debris of thee fallen house, but several persons came to their assistance, and in a few minutes they were extricated, and found to have sustained no injuries beyond a few scratches.  The precise spot whence the explosion emanated is at present a mystery, as is also its cause.  We believe, however, that there was but very slight damage done to the surrounding property.

    F
RIGHTFUL SUICIDE IN ST. PANCRAS.—On Tuesday last in the neighbourhood of Chilton-street, Somers Town, St. Pancras, a married woman, named Susan Baggs, committed a most determined act of self-destruction, by leaping from the attic window of the house in which she resided.  She was at once conveyed in a cab to the University College Hospital, where she died in about an hour after her admission.  She was in the twenty-seventh year of her age.  Jealousy of her husband is said to have been the cause of the act.

    A
CCIDENT ON THE LONDON AND SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY.—An accident occurred on the Windsor and Reading branch of the South Western Railway on Saturday the 20th, to the express train, which leaves Windsor at 25 minutes past 11.  When within one mile of Feltham the engine suddenly left the rails, dragging the whole of the carriages with it, and, after proceeding up the line for about one hundred yards, tearing up the medals and chairs, it diverged to the left, ploughing its way into a stubble field, when the entire train fell over with a fearful crash, five of the carriages being smashed or broken.  Not a moment was lost in extricating the passengers from their perilous position, and happily not one life was sacrificed, nor apparently any serious injury inflicted, beyond the effects of violent shaking and extreme fright.

    F
ATAL ACCIDENT TO A RAILWAY GUARD.—A fatal accident occurred on Friday to a railway guard on the Liverpool and Manchester line.  The guard was missing at the Goldfield station, Manchester, and at the Victoria station he was found on the roof of the van quite dead.  It is supposed that he had been on the roof looking after some luggage, when his head came in contact with the arch of a bridge, fracturing his skull, and leaving him a corpse.  He was a married man, and has left a widow and family behind him.

    M
YSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCE.—Some excitement has been caused during the past fortnight (observes the Gloucestershire Chronicle) relative to the disappearance of a man named Williams, who has lately been employed by the Great Western Railway company.  It appeals that about a fortnight ago he suddenly disappeared from his lodgings and his employment, having a considerable sum of money in his possession, and although an animated inquiry has been instituted by the magistrates, every effort has been unsuccessful.

    Hall, the aeronaut, has died from the effects of the injuries he received in falling front his balloon on Monday, when it ascended from Newcastle, as already described.

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NAVAL AND MILITARY.

    WHAT A FRENCH SOLDIER HAS TO CARRY.—As the knapsack question is again the subject of public discussion it may be useful to know what a French soldier has to carry packed inside and strapped outside.  On the outside:—1. the tente abri and tent pole.  2. A blanket.  3. A waterproof cape, with hood.  4. A water bucket, used also as a camp kettle.  5. A. round loaf of black bread.  6. A tin pan.  7. A quart measure. Inside: 1. A pair of gaiters.  2. Two shirts.  3. A pair of shoes.  4. An order book.  5. A small canvas bag, containing an awl, five stout needles, a skein of scarlet thread, a skein of yellow thread, a skein of black thread, a thimble, shoe, clothes, and musket brushes, a small box containing the tools necessary to take a musket to pieces and put it together again, a grease box, a wax ditto.  6. Two pocket handkerchiefs.  7. 50 rounds of ball cartridge.

    T
RIAL OF A TURKISH VESSEL OF WAR.—The trial of the second Turkish corvette, built by Messrs. Wigram and Sons, Blackwall, took place at the usual mile of measurement on the 20th inst., when an average speed of 10.615 knots an hour was attained.  The corvette is pierced for 19 guns, and her engines are of 150 horse power.

    The Duke of Somerset and the Lords of the Admiralty have left town on an official visit of inspection to Chatham and Sheerness.

    The men of the Royal and East India Engineers are still employed in their diving operations at Rochester-bridge, and have succeeded in raising several of the large masses of stone which were blown into the river from the old bridge on its being destroyed.  Some of the blocks of stone weigh upwards of half a ton each.  The diving operations are superintended by Mr. Heinke, the inventor of the apparatus used, who has been engaged by the Government for that purpose.

    It is mentioned as probable that the colonelcy of the 5th Dragoon Guards, vacant by the death of General Sir John Slade, will be conferred on Major-General the Earl of Cardigan, who is the senior cavalry general after those who have already been appointed to colonelcies.

    T
HE DUTIES OF VOLUNTEER RIFLE CORPS.—A letter has been addressed to Lord Vivian by the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, Secretary at War, in which the latter observes:—"As regards the eight days' drill every four months, or twenty-four days in the year, which is the period prescribed by the regulations, they may be taken together or separately as the convenience of the volunteers may require, provided the term of twenty-four days is reached.  As regards 'days,' the Government are most anxious in this, as in all things, to give every fair latitude which will suit the convenience and facilitate the operations of the volunteers, who can in very few instances devote the mornings to their practice and instruction.  The evenings may, therefore, be counted as days, and your artillerymen will find that two or three hours' work with the great guns constitute a very fair day's work.  I hope these explanations will meet with the views of your volunteers, whose patriotism and public spirit deserve the thanks of the Government."

    The Norfolk Artillery, which are at present quartered at Sheerness, under the command of Colonel F. L. Astley, began their gun practice with round shot and shell last week.  The practice they made was excellent; the precision with which the gunners laid the guns showed the proficiency they have attained as artillerymen, seldom or never missing the target with shot or shell, and having to replace it every day.  All those who witnessed the practice were quite satisfied of the proficiency to which militia can be brought. This regiment was only embodied on the 5th of April.

    THE ARMY IN THE COLONIES.—In 1857 there were 48,901 non-commissioned officers and privates of her Majesty's forces in the colonies, against 47,651 in 1856, and 36,896 in 1855.  The forces were thus distributed, viz.:—In North America, 6,213; in Australia, 4,287; in the Mediterranean, 15,627 (Gibraltar, 5,144; and Malta, 7,055); the Cape of Good Hope, 11,225; the West Indies, 3,942; Bermuda, 1,128; Ceylon, 2,339; Hongkong 1,413; and the West of Africa, 969. There are no Queen's troops in Labuan.  The amount provided for this purpose out of the Imperial funds averages 3,182,743l. a year, and that set apart by the colonies themselves only 337,595l. a year.  With the exception of the Cape of Good Hope, Victoria, Guiana, and the whole of North America, the colonial expenditure in this paper represents almost entirely an expenditure on the Queen's forces, either in the shape of a contribution to the British Treasury, or else of an outlay on barracks, forts, or other military works.  At the Cape there is an armed mounted police, consisting of about 400 men, which cost the colony, in 1857, 32,505l.  At Victoria there was an expenditure in 1857 of about 5,400l. on volunteer corps; at Guiana upwards of 9.000l. was expended on militia; the whole of the expenditure in North America is exclusively on militia.  The numbers of that force by the latest returns were as follows,—viz., Canada, 236,427; Nova Scotia, 53,920; New Brunswick, 30,800; Newfoundland, nil; and in Prince Edward's Island, 6,886, making a gross total of 328,033. The German Legion is separately noticed as follows:—The German Legion sailed towards the end of 1856, and arrived at the Cape in January, 1857. The following is a statement of the expenditure on them, so far as yet ascertained, including an issue of about 43,500l. as an allowance to them to build dwellings, and an issue of 11,500l. for outfits, viz., in 1857, 102,402l.; in 1858 (partly estimated), 90,170l.  The number of the German Legion landed at the Cape, as reported by the Governor, was about 2,300.  In October, 1858, the Governor reported that about 1,028 of the Legion had volunteered to proceed for service to India, and that only 1,042 non-commissioned officers and privates remained in Cape Colony.  The numbers not accounted for must be presumed to have quitted the corps.  No later report of their numbers has been received.

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IRELAND

    After a considerable delay the result of the deliberations of the Irish Roman Catholic hierarchy on the question of education have at length been made public.  The mixed system is condemned entirely, and a claim is put in for a separate grant to Catholic Schools, as in England.  Intermediate mixed education is also condemned, and on that ground the Queen's Colleges are objected to.  This decision has already borne its fruits.  The Catholic members of the Board of National Education are withdrawing from it, and it is beyond doubt that the whole influence of the Catholic clergy in Ireland will be directed to the withdrawal of the children of their communion from the national schools.

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LAUGHING MATTERS.

    A lady observing the following notice on a board, "Horses taken to grass: long tails, three shillings and sixpence; short tails, two shillings," asked the owner of the land the reason for the difference in price, "Why, you see, ma'am," he replied, "long tails can brush away the flies, but the short tails are so tormented that they can hardly eat at all."

    "Talking of getting a good deal out of a little piece of land," said Simson, "why, I bought an acre of old Mr. Ross, planted one acre of it with potatoes and the other with corn."  "I thought you said you bought only one acre, Simson?" remarked the listener.  "How could you plant two?"  "Very easily, sir, I stood it up on the end, and planted both sides of it."

    The landlord of an hotel entered, in an angry mood, the sleeping apartment of a delinquent boarder, and demanded payment, adding angrily, "And I tell you now that you don't leave my house till you pay it."—"Good!" said the lodger; "just put that in writing; make a regular agreement of it; I'll stay with you as long as I live!" was the cool rejoinder.

    A dandy with more beauty than brains, married an heiress, who, although very accomplished, was by no means handsome.  One day he said to her: "My dear, as ugly as you are, I love you as well as though you were pretty."  "Thank you, love," was the reply: "I can return the compliment, for fool as you are, I love you as though you had wit."

    An urchin in a country school was reading the verse in the New Testament which reads thus: "And he saw Abraham afar off with Lazarus in his bosom."  The boy gravely spelt it out thus: "And he-saw a-broom afar-off with-leather-ears in Boston."

    "Did the wind blow out your way last night, Charley?"  "No, it didn't blow my way out; for I saw it perfectly clear."  "Yes, I perceive your still have a bad way about you—your old habits."  "I expect to have till after my tailor's bill is paid—then I may hope for a new suit."

    When John wants a hot bath, and hasn't the change to pay for it, he has only to tell his girl that he has about made up his mind to select another sweetheart, and he is in hot water directly.

    "Oh, my dear, how come you so wet?" inquired an affectionate mother of her son.  "Why, ma, one of the boys said I daren't jump into the creek, and I can tell you I ain't to be dared."

    A retired schoolmaster excuses his passion for angling, by saying that, from constant habit, he never feels quite himself unless he is handling the rod.

    "They tell me wine gives strength," said Fox, one day, "and yet I, who have just drank three bottles, cannot keep myself on my legs!"

    Most kinds of roots and barks are now used as medicines, except the cube root and the bark of a dog.

    A Frenchman has written to say that he has invented a remedy for the 2-thake, which will allevi-8 all pain 4-thwith.

    About the only person we ever heard of that was not spoiled by being lionized, was a Jew, named Daniel.

    The gentleman who stood upon ceremony has lost his footing, and now finds that he has slipped out of a very pleasant circle.

    Profound silence in a public assemblage has been thus neatly described  "One might have heard the stealing of a pocket-handkerchief."

____________________________________

THE CHURCH BELL.

I hate that bell's discordant sound,
Proclaiming priestcraft round and round;
To thoughtless fools it pleasure yields
And lures them from true wisdom's fields.
To blind their intellect with charms
Of cup and stole and prayer's alarms;
And when devotion's voice commands,
To fill with guiltless blood their bigot hands.

I hate that bell's discordant sound,
Spreading false worship round and round;
To me it rings of outrag'd mind,
Of direful woe to human kind,
And persecution's bloody grasp,
And Reason's martyrs dying gasp;
And all that tyranny does seek,
To keep us blinded, and to make us meek.

LUTON WOOD.


    E
MIGRATION.―The number of emigrants who sailed from the United Kingdom during the forty-four years from 1815 to 1858 inclusive amounted to 4,797,166.  Of these 1,180,046 went to the North American colonies; 2,890,403 to the United States; 652,910 to the Australian colonies and New Zealand; and 73,807 to other places.  The average annual emigration from the United Kingdom from 1815 to 1858 amounted to 109,026; for the ten years ending 1858, to 261,865.

 

――――

PAGE 8.
 

THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT.

    OLD BASFORD.—MANHOOD SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION.—Mr. Eligh Brown chairman.  After our local business a subscription was entered into for the Testimonial, and a committee was formed to get up a tea-party for the benefit of the Testimonial.  Mr. Richard Williamson and Mr. Eligh Brown were elected delegates to represent Old Basford at the forthcoming delegate meeting, to be held at Mr. Wm. Hickling's, Southwark, Old Basford, on Sunday, September 4th, at 2 o'clock p.m.  We shall be glad to see delegates from the surrounding districts.—W. HICKLING, Secretary.

    B
RADFORD.―A meeting of the members of the N.C.A. will be held on Sunday next, August 28th, at 10 o'clock in the morning, at Ambler's Temperance Hotel, Market-place.—R. CAMERON.

    N
ORTHAMPTON.―Mr. Wilson in the chair.  A number of contributions were promised, and four persons were appointed to wait upon all known friends.  We meet next Sunday evening at Mr. Wilson's, 4, Dover-street, at 6 o'clock, when all readers of the Cabinet Newspaper and friends to the cause are respectfully invited to attend.—H. FLEMING, Secretary.

    T
OWER HAMLET PARLIAMENTARY REFORM ASSOCIATION.―(Bethnal-green Branch.).—A goodly feeling prevailed throughout the meeting (which was a good one), at Twig Folly, last Sunday morning, Messrs. Longmaid and Neeson being greatly applauded at various parts of their speeches by the audience, several of whom promised Mr. Longmaid they would join our association.  On Monday night we met at "Shipley's Coffee House," 227, Bethnal-green-road, Mr. Longmaid in the chair.  Mr. Haines read No. 2 of the "Evenings with the people" which elicited some encomiums.  A new member was enrolled.  On Monday evening week, Sept. 5th, the "Magna Charta," or the "Bill of Rights," will be read.  Discussion to take place afterwards.  All friends of progress respectfully invited.  Chair to be taken at half-past eight o'clock. J. SHIPWAY, Treasurer J. SIMPSON, Secretary.

    N
OTTINGHAM.―The Manhood Suffrage Association met at the Fox and Hounds.  Mr. Ward was called to the chair.  The testimonial committee gave in their report, and it was highly satisfactory as far as they had gone.  Mr. Wm. Smith, Commercial Coffee Rooms, No. 7, Hounds-gate, has kindly consented to become treasurer to the testimonial fund; at his house all subscriptions will be received and duly acknowledged.  All friends are requested to attend next Sunday night, at eight o'clock, to elect delegates to the forthcoming delegate meeting at Baxford.—JOHN KIRK, Secretary, No. 18, Cavendish-street.

    C
ALEDONIAN FIELDS,—Sunday, August 21—Messrs. John-stone and Bligh addressed a large meeting in the Caledonian and Britannia Fields on the Strike and Manhood Suffrage.   The attendance was very large, and an excellent feeling was evinced for the building trades and reform.  Meetings in the Caledonian Fields at 11 a.m.; Britannia at 6 p.m., next Sunday, and at the Alma Arms, Chapel-street, Islington, at 8.

    S
TALEYEBRIDGE.—Chartist Meeting Room, Quarry-street, High-street.—A full members' meeting will take place in the above meeting, on Sunday afternoon, August 28, on business of great importance to the members.  The doors will be opened at half-past five.—Wm. HILL.

    M
ANCHESTER.—At a meeting held in the People's Institute, on Wednesday evening, August 24, a committee of fourteen persons were appointed to manage the affairs relating to the Testimonial to Mr. Ernest Jones, collect subscriptions, &c.  The committee will meet at the People's Institute every Wednesday night, at half-past seven o'clock.  Send us a few more sheets.—Mr. Abbot, Mr. Rushton, Mr. Hooson, Mr. Gill, Mr. Porter, Mr. Lowe, Mr. Entwistle, Mr. Hogg, Mr. Cunliffe, Mr. Bowes, Hargreave, Mr. Paulding, Mr. Hemmingway.—Mr. GILL, Chairman; Mr. HODSON; Treasurer, Mr. J. E. BENSON, Secretary to the Committee.

____________________________________

HOME NOTES.

    PETITIONS: During the short session of Parliament which has just closed, popular sentiments have been expressed by means of 1,929 petitions, having 220,459 signatures attached to them.  For shortening the hours of work in mines, 58,737 signatures have been recorded; against excluding the Bible from schools in India, 51,118; against certain proposed changes in the Scottish Universities, 22,946; in favour of legalising marriage with a deceased wife's sister, 10,692, and against that measure, 3,637; against the Endowed Schools Bill, 8,070, and for that measure, 3,055; for the Ballot, 7,533; for the regulating the measuring of gas, 7,453; for separating Protestant and Roman Catholic children in schools, 7,011; for prohibiting the opium trade, 4,789; for altering the law of landlord and tenant in Ireland, 3,532; for repeal of Paper Duty, 2,898; against Church Rate Abolition Bill, 2,731; in favour of, 193; against abolishing Church Rates without an equivalent, 2,181; for repeal of Maynooth College Act, 1,926; against saluting the Host at Malta, 1,950; for ameliorating the condition of national school teachers, 1,896; for reducing the duty on hops, 1,678; and for the removing restrictions from free and grammar schools, 1,559.  For reform in Parliament there are 127 applicants, and for universal suffrage 1.

    T
HE OLD SEA SERPENT AGAIN.—The schooner "Arabella," Capt. Boothby, arrived here last evening from Wells, Me.  Capt. B. states that off Boon Island, Lege, he and his crew distinctly saw, about a hundred rods from the vessel, a shoal of whales eight or ten in number.  Among them was one answering the description of the sea serpent.  The monster several times raised his head ten or twelve feet, and sometimes higher, from the surface of the water, then plunged it beneath; and while his head was under water, he unmercifully thrashed the whales with his tail.  All hands and the captain were witnesses of this sport some considerable time.

    E
ARTHQUAKE IN ENGLAND.—About 10.15 a.m. on Saturday, August 13, Diss, in Norfolk, and neighbourhood were visited by one or more separate vibrations of the earth's surface.  Not a cloud was visible, but many persons who felt the vibration were also attracted by a low rumbling noise like distant thunder.  The shock was distinctly felt by three or four gentlemen sitting in a reading-room connected with the corn hall, all simultaneously wondering as to the extraordinary trembling produced.  A person from a village called Kenninghall, about seven miles distant (and where the vibration must have been much greater), with many of her neighbours, ran out of their houses quite alarmed, and the parish of Hopton experienced the same shock.

    T
HE DUKE AND THE LAMPPOST.—A lengthened correspondence between the Duke of Wellington and Sir Richard Mayne has been published by order of the House of Commons.  The Duke and the policeman are evidently very intimate, calling each other "Dear Sir Richard," and "My dear Duke of Wellington."  The Inspector appointed to investigate the matters gives a verdict hostile to the Duke, and yet " Dear Sir Richard" continues the police nuisance at Apsley House!

    G
OING HOME.—The Prince of Oude and attendants left Southampton on Saturday, in the steamship "Ceylon," for Alexandria, from whence they will depart for India.  The unostentatious manner in which the Prince embarked in the Ceylon presented a striking contrast with the splendour amid which he landed at Southampton about three years since.

    S
PARROWS FOR NEW ZEALAND.—It appears from the papers that in New Zealand the country, at particular seasons, is invaded by armies of caterpillars, which clear off the grain crops as completely as if mowed down by a scythe.  With the view of counteracting this plague a novel importation has been made.  It is thus noticed by the Southern Cross:—"Mr. Brodie has shipped 300 sparrows on board the Swordfish, carefully selected from the best hedgerows in England.  The food alone, he informs us, put on board for them, cost 18l.  This sparrow question has been a long-standing joke in Auckland; but the necessity to farmers of small birds to keep down the grubs is admitted on all sides.  There is no security in New Zealand against the invasion of myriads of caterpillars which devastate the crops.  Mr. Brodie has already acclimatised the pheasant, which is abundant in the north.  The descent from the pheasant to sparrows is somewhat of an anticlimax; but should the latter multiply, the greatest benefit will have been conferred on the country."

TIGHT ROPE FEAT AT NIAGARA.
(From the Buffalo Express, Aug. 4.)

    Niagara Falls was a swarming hive again yesterday, filled and overflowing with an immense throng of people, collected to witness the fourth repetition of M. Blondin's daring feat of crossing the chasm upon a cable stretched between the cliffs.  The crowd gathered was almost, if not quite, equal to that assembled upon any former occasion; and the gathering was warranted, for the sight which was witnessed surpassed all the previous exhibitions of the same character.  Mons. Blondin rode into the pleasure ground on this side about half-past four o'clock, and started upon his aerial journey after a few moments of delay in preparation.  His trip across to the Canadian shore was accomplished quickly, as he proceeded at a tripping pace most of the distance, and only paused a few seconds occasionally to correct his balance and obtain slight rest.  All of his feats he reserved for his return journey.  Arrived at the Canadian bank, he refreshed himself a little, and took a rest of perhaps fifteen minutes, when he again stepped upon the rope and tripped down the slant, airy plane, toward "the land of the free and the home of the brave."  When about half-way to the centre he stopped and sat down, then stretched himself at full length upon the rope, then performed a number of daring antics, and finally stood upright upon his head, remaining in that reversed position for a length of time which seemed a moment at least, swinging and kicking his feet in the most reckless though ludicrous manner that can be conceived.  Resuming his journey, he proceeded but a little way when he again halted and repeated his performance, with the addition of a backward somersault, and one or two sudden swings round the rope, which caused a general flutter among the hearts of the spectators, and brought little screams from many of the ladies.  Starting forward again, he proceeded to the open space in the centre, between the extreme guy ropes that branch off to either bank, where the cable spans the gulf without stay or accompaniment.  Here he paused again, and laying his pole upon one of the guy ropes, he swung himself under the cable and ran across this central space of single cord, in the style of a monkey; hanging beneath, and swinging himself along by his hands and feet, with great rapidity.  Going back again in the same gymnastic manner, when he had returned to the point where his poll rested, he began a series of performances which outdid in thrilling and startling effect upon the nerves of the spectators all that he had done before.  Clutching the rope with his hands, he swung his body clear from it, and hung for a lengthy period of more than ten seconds, suspended by the arms, and by one arm, over the fearful depth of the chasm.  Then he repeatedly turned such a suspended somersault as is peculiar to boys, throwing his feet over his head and between his arms, and hanging with the shoulder joints in a most unnatural position.  Then he straightened his body into a horizontal position, still suspended by the arms, thrown backward as described—an exertion requiring immense strength, and calculated to exhaust the nervous system tremendously.  After this he suspended himself by the legs, and by one single leg, hanging head downward—whirled round the rope—turned more somersaults—stood upon his head again—and, in fact, performed nearly all the most reckless teats attempted by tight rope performers under ordinary circumstances.  Twice again before reaching the bank he halted and repeated some of these antics, seeming determined to fatigue himself to the last point of endurance, and thoroughly satisfy the spectators with his exhibition of daring and skill.  And they were satisfied, beyond question.  The performance was wonderful, and exciting enough for the most greedy seeker after sensations; and was by far the greatest yet given by Mons. Blondin.

____________________________________

DESPERATE AFFRAY.

    Since out last issue our quiet town has been thrown into a high state of excitement by a report that there had occurred on the public square of our sister town, Huntsville, a fatal rencoutre, wherein Mr. Forester Black, son of Colonel William Black, of this city, and Mr. Warren Sams, a merchant of Huntsville, were killed immediately, and John Black and Dr. James Smithson, of this city, and Constable Moody and James Sams, of Huntsville, were severely wounded.  All the above-named parties were personally known to most of our citizens, and the utmost anxiety was felt and manifested to know the particulars of the distressing tragedy.  We proceed to give the particulars of the affair as it has been detailed to us by several eye-witnesses.  It appears that on Friday, the 24th inst., some altercation between James Sams, the Son Of Warren Sams, and Forester Black took place, in which insulting words and threatening actions were used by young Sams towards Black.  No collision, however, resulted at this time, and it was supposed that there would be no further quarrel.  Several hours afterwards some hard words were interchanged between Warren Sams and Forester Black, when both drew weapons, the former a bowie-knife and the latter a revolver.  Black's pistol missed fire twice, and was discharged at Sams twice, the last shot, as is supposed, taking effect in the head of Sams, Sams in the meantime advancing on Black with his knife.  One of our informants states that Sams was in the act of falling when the report of firearms from an unexpected quarter was heard, and Sams fell instantly.  Just at this time young Sams came running up with a double-barrelled shot-gun, and discharged one barrel at the distance of six or eight feet into the side of Mr. Black, and just as he was falling fired the other barrel into his back, both barrels heavily charged with buckshot.  Young Sams then attacked Dr. James Smithson, knocking him down with his gun, when Dr. D. C. Smithson, a brother of James, advancing to aid his brother, struck at Sams with a gun, but missed him and felled his brother to the ground.  James Smithson, who, it seems, was unarmed, wrested the shot-gun from the hands of D. C, Smithson and chased young Sams off the ground, snapping the gun at him in his flight.  Several pistol shots were fired and bowie-knives used by some persons as yet unknown, probably by interested spectators.  An idea may be formed of the unparalleled savageness of this street fight, when it is considered that Warren Sams was shot with ten pistol balls and stabbed once or twice in the breast; that Forester Black was shot twice with a double-barrelled shot, John Black and James Smithson wounded in the thigh, James Sams stabbed with a bowie-knife, and Mr. Moody severely wounded in the leg; and, further, that after the fight had ended, four revolvers were found lying upon the ground of battle, three of which were entirely empty, and one partially discharged.  Not a sound was heard after the shooting commenced, save the sharp, quick report of the revolver, the stunning sound of the deadly shot-gun, and the clash of cold steel, until Sams and Black had fallen and their lifeblood was pouring forth through the ghastly and fatal wounds.  The scene of this tragedy was enough to sicken a manly heart.  A young man in the morning of his life, and a mature man in the autumn of his days, lying within a few feet of each other, their lives pouring out in torrents of blood, and four others bleeding from severe wounds; but imagination can feebly depict the heartrending lamentations of mothers, sisters, wives, relatives, and friends.  Our informant says but a minute or two had elapsed after the firing before the square was covered with near a hundred women, who made the town resound with their frantic screams and wild cries of grief.  We learn that warrants have been issued for the apprehension of several supposed to be connected with the affray, but no examination has at this date (June 29) been had.  Forester Black was formerly a resident of this city; was a graduate of the Lebanon, Tennessee, Law School, and had been for several years located at Huntsville in the practice of his profession.  He was much esteemed by his brother lawyers, and had many warm personal friends.  We knew him as an intelligent, social, generous, unselfish gentleman, honourable and high-minded in his intercourse, whose heart was bound to his friends with cords of triple steel.  He thus, unfortunately, fell at the age of 25 years, leaving a young wife, sisters and brothers, and an aged father to bewail his untimely end.—Fayetteville Arkansian, July 2.

THE MARKETS.
                                          Thursday Evening, August 25.

    The scrip of the new Indian Loan was quoted during the greater part of the day 97⅞ to 98, but rose late in the afternoon to 98⅛ to ⅝, or say 1⅛ to 1⅜ prem.  Consols closed at 95½.  Three per Cent. Consols for money opened this morning, 95½, ⅝, ⅜; ditto, for account (7th Sept.), 95½, ⅞.  Indian Four per Cent. Debentures, 1858, 95½; ditto, 1859, 95.  Exchequer Bills have again declined 1s. to 2s., closing at 20s. to 23s. prem.  The foreign stock market was quiet, but steady.
    S
UGAR.―Porto Rico, 37s to 46s; Havannah, 36s 6d to 40s; Guatemala, 32s to 38s.
   C
OFFEE.―Nothing of interest has transpired in the market.
    T
EA.—No change.
    M
ETALS.―Scotch pig iron, is steady at 53s.  Spelter firm at 21l. 10s on the spot.  All other metals remain inactive.
    C
OTTON.—American, from 4¾d to 9d; Surat, 5d to 5¾d; Egyptian, 8d to 8¾d; Bahia, 7¾d to 8d; Maranham, 8⅛d to 8½d.
    C
ORN.—Wheat, English, red, from 44s to 50s according to weight and condition; Salevern, 52s to 53s for superior.  Foreign was held for late rates generally.  Flour in slow request.  Top price of town made, 43s; town households, 36s to 37s; Norfolk, 30s for approved qualities.  Barley realised full prices for both malting and grinding qualities.  Malt is held firmly at late quotations.  Beans and peas brought quite as much money.  For oats the trade was slow and light; Russian rather easy to purchase.
    M
EAT.—The weather continues to operate against trade, which is dull.  Supplies have, however, been moderated to the demand, and prices are without material change.
    B
UTTER.—1sts, 108s; 2nds, 104s; 3rds, 93s; 4ths, 84s; 5ths, 66s; 6ths, 52s.
    C
OALS.—Best house coals, 16s 6d to 17s; seconds, 15s to 15s 6d; Hartleys, 13s 3d to 14s; manufacturers, 12s 3d to 13s 3d.

____________________________________

FROM THE LONDON GAZETTES.
F
RIDAY, AUGUST 19.
BANKRUPTS.

ASHER WEINTHAL, Cannon-street, warehouseman.
C
HARLES THOMAS INGRAM, Fenchurch-street, oil merchant.
L
EVI COBB, Liverpool, eating-house keeper.
H
ENRY STUREMBURG and WILLIAM GOLDENSTEDT, Liverpool
    ship brokers.
W
ILLIAM LINDOP, Newcastle-under-Lyme, brush
    manufacturer.
C
LEMENT EDWARD DAVIES, Gainsborough, spirit merchant.


T
UESDAY, AUGUST 23.
BANKRUPTCY ANNULLED.

THOMAS HORNER, St. John-street, Bridport-place, Haxton,
    surgeon.


BANKRUPTS.

WILLIAM WALLYER WALKYIER, Sandown, Isle of Wight,
    postmaster.
W
ILLIAM SEAGER, Phillip's-place, Shooter's-hill-road,
    Greenwich, builder.
J
AMES BROADHURST, Albert-street, Kennington, and
    Carlisle-street, Lambeth, builder.
J
AMES DOHERTY, Birmingham, draper.
S
AMUEL MARSH, late of Nottingham, lace manufacturer.
W
ILLIAM NECK PECKINS, Torquay, auctioneer.
E
DWARD CLEMENT DAVIES, Gainsborough, chemist.
J
OHN LYONS, Sheffield, steel manufacturer.
E
LI ORMROD and RICHARD ROBERTS, Manchester, commission
    agents.
S
AMUEL NEWTON, Stockport, and Dove-bank Mills, within
    Mellor, Derbyshire, cotton manufacturer.
S
AMUEL MIDDLETON, Oldham, ironmonger.
R
OBERT CALDECOTT, Manchester, boardinghouse-keeper.
E
DWARD EMERSON FENWICK, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, wine
    merchant.

____________________________________


    "A young minister dined with the farmer in the afternoon when services were over, and his appetite was so sharp, that he thought it necessary to apologise to his host for eating so substantial a dinner—'You see,' he said, 'I am always very hungry after preaching.'  The old gentleman, not much admiring the youth's pulpit ministrations, having heard this apology two or three times, at last replied sarcastically, 'Indeed, sir, I'm no surprised at it, considering the trash that comes aff your stomach in the morning.'" *  *  *  * "A clergyman from a distance having come to officiate in the parish church, the betheral, knowing the terms on which it was usual for the minister officiating to pray for the efficiency of the local magistracy, quietly cautioned the clergyman before service that, in regard to the town-council there, it would be quite out of place for him to pray that they should be a 'terror to all evil doers,' because, as he said, the 'poor auld bodies could be nae terror to onybody.'" *  *  *  * "I have another story of canine misbehaviour in church.  A dog was present during the service, and in the sermon the worthy minister was in the habit of speaking loud, and, in fact, when he got warmed with his subject, of shouting almost to the top of his voice.  The dog who, in the early part, had been very quiet, became quite excited, as is not uncommon with some dogs when hearing a noise, and from whinging and whining, as the speaker's voice rose loud and strong, at last began to bark and howl.  The minister, naturally much annoyed at the interruption, called upon the betheral to put out the dog, who at once expressed his readiness to obey the order, but could not resist the temptation to look up to the pulpit, and to say very significantly, 'Ay, ay, sr; but indeed it was yersel began it.'"—Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character.

    H
OLLOWAY'S OINTMENT AND PILLS.—THE PEOPLE'S COMFORT.—In all bodily afflictions, whether they be obvious on the surface, or deeply hidden in the interior, the sufferer will find relief in Holloway's remedies.  The merest scratches and foulest ulcers are cured by this healing ointment, which does not skin over the sores, but penetrates to their sources, purifies their foundations, and raises sound and healthy flesh, and thus it works a permanent cure, and prevents the recurrence of the same or any other diseases.  Holloway's pills much augment the effect of his ointment.  Both are products of the vegetable kingdom, free alike from all mineral and poisonous compounds.  Mother, nurse, or patient, may put implicit faith in the curative powers of Holloway's preparations.

____________________________________

"For the labourer is worthy of his hire."
"Thou shalt not oppress the hireling in his wages."

RATEPAYERS' NATIONAL LABOUR ALLIANCE, for the Payment of WAGES WITHOUT STOPPAGES.  To relieve the rates by bettering the condition of the Poor in the Earnings of their Labour—to prohibit the robbery of Wages by Stoppages—to rescue the Ratepayers from paying the Wages of the Stoppage Manufacturing Employers.  General Manager, Mr. Jeremiah Briggs, Solicitor, 5, High Pavement, and 6, Hound's Gate, Nottingham.

___________________


    R
EFORMER'S LIBRARY, 240, Strand, London.—Voltaire's "Philosophical Dictionary," in parts at 2d. each, or two vols. cloth, 6s.
    Thomas Paine's "Age of Reason," and other Theological Works, 3s.  The only complete edition.
    Large Portrait of Paine, 1s.
    "The Elements of Social Science; or Physical, Sexual, and Natural Religion."  Containing an exposition of the true cause and only cure of the three primary Social Evils—Poverty, Prostitution, and Celibacy. 450 pages. Second Edition.  Price 2s., or in cloth, 2s. 6d.
    "The Influence of Woman in Society." By J. Donaldson, Price 2d.
    "Canterbury versus Rome, and Christianity in Relation to Both.  Price 6d. (published at 1s.).
    By Ernest Jones, "Notes to the People."  Contains "Beldagon Church," "The Painter of Florence," "De Brassier, a Democratic Romance," &c. By Ernest Jones. 520 pages, 8vo. Price 1s. 6d.
    "Napoleon the Little." By Victor Hugo. 9d.
    Felix Pyatt's Letter to Queen Victoria." 1d.
    An Essay on the Nine Hours' Movement." By J. B. Leno. 2d.
    To ensure the delivery of any of the above, write direct to E. Truelove, 240, Strand,

___________________


P
OLITICAL EQUITY.—EQUITABLE SUFFRAGE SOCIETY.—The SUFFRAGE to be EQUAL and JUST.  Every Man to have a VOTE, but ONE Vote only—that is, Equitable and Universal Suffrage.
    T
HREE Members to be returned; whereby, every class will be represented; namely, the Higher Class, the Middle Class, and the Lower Class.  No Split Votes. 661 Members to be returned by 220 Constituencies of Three Members each, with London Four.  Every man to vote for ONE Candidate; whereby no Class can command two-thirds of the Constituency.
    All men joining the Equitable Suffrage Society, to write or send to the General Manager, Mr. Jeremiah Briggs, solicitor, No, 6, Hounds Gate, or No. 5, High Pavement, Nottingham.

____________________________________


Printed by and for E
RNEST JONES, and Published by him at his Office, 17, Exeter Street, Strand, W.C

 



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