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ON THE IMPORTANCE OF GENERAL EDUCATION,
AND THE MODES TO BE PURSUED
IN THE DIFFERENT SCHOOLS.


In endeavouring to point out the social and political importance of education, and the necessity for establishing a better and more general system than has hitherto been adopted in this country, it will be advisable to begin by giving a clear definition of what we mean by the term "education."

    As it applies to children, we understand it to imply all those means which are used to develop the various faculties of mind and body, and so to train them, that the child shall become a healthy, intelligent, moral, and useful member of society.

    But in its more extended sense, as it applies to men and nations, it means all those varied circumstances that exercise their influence on human beings from the cradle to the grave.  Hence a man's parental or scholastic training, his trade or occupation, his social companions, his pleasures and pursuits, his religion, the institutions, laws, and government of his country, all operate in various ways to train or educate his physical, mental, and moral powers; and as all these influences are perfect or defective in character, so will he be well or badly educated.  Differences of character will be found in the same class, according to the modified circumstances that have operated on each individual; but the general character of each class, community, or nation stands prominently forward, affording a forcible illustration of the effects of individual, social, and political education.  According to the mental or moral instruction each INDIVIDUALS may receive, will he be the better able to withstand social taint and political corruption, and will, by his laudable example and energy, be advancing the welfare of society, while he is promoting his own.  According to the intellectual and moral spirit which pervades SOCIETY, will its individual members be improved; and in proportion as it is ignorant or demoralized, will they be deteriorated by its contact: and as despotism or freedom prevail in a NATION, will its subjects be imbued with feelings of liberty, or be drilled into passive slaves.

    Our present object is with INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION, beginning with childhood; and if we can so far succeed as to interest and induce others to assist in promoting this department of education, the social and political education we have referred to will be comparatively an easy task;—for if the rising generation can be properly educated, in a few years they will give such a healthy tone to society, and such an improving spirit to government, that old prejudices, vices, and corruptions, must speedily give way before them.

    We have said, that education means the developing and training of all the faculties of mind and body.  By the faculties of the body we mean the whole physical structure.  By the faculties of the mind we mean those powers we possess for perceiving, acquiring, and treasuring up various kinds of knowledge; for using that knowledge in comparing and judging of the properties of things, and weighing the consequences of actions; for giving us a love of justice, rectitude, and truth; for prompting us to acts of benevolence, and delighting us with the happiness of others; for appreciating the beauties of earth and heaven, and inspiring with wonderment, awe, and veneration: in short, all those mental powers which perceive, reflect, and prompt us to action.

    By training or educating a bodily faculty is meant the means used for accelerating its growth, and adding to its strength and activity.  For instance, a proper quantity of nutritious food, pure air, warm clothing, and sufficient exercise are necessary to the proper development or growth of a child; and if these essentials are denied him in infancy, he will be stunted in growth, and debilitated bodily and mentally; nor can any subsequent treatment effectually remedy the evil.  Nay, not only in infancy, but at every period of our existence, are these conditions necessary to health and strength.  We might here adduce a great number of facts, to prove the great physical injury sustained by infants and adults among the poorer classes from bad or scanty food, impure atmospheres, over exertion, and the evils attendant on ignorance and poverty; but let one or two suffice.  M. Villermé, an eminent statician of France, has proved that there are one hundred deaths in a poor arrondissment while there are only fifty in a rich one; that, taking the whole population of France, the rich live twelve and half years longer than the poor; that the children of the rich have the probability of living forty-two years and half, while the children of the poor have only the probability of living thirty years.  And the late Mr. Sadler has shown that as many persons die in manufacturing districts before their twentieth year, as in agricultural districts before their fortieth.  These alarming facts should awaken the attention of the working classes in particular, and should lead them to investigate the more immediate cause of this lamentable sacrifice of life, and to devise some means by which the evil may be remedied.

    But we have talked of training as well as developing the physical faculties.  What we mean by training a faculty is this: we mean the subjecting it to a course of discipline, so as to strengthen and habituate it to perform certain operations with ease and effect.  Thus the muscles of the body may be enlarged and strengthened by proper training; the hand may be trained to peculiar performances; the eye to perceive the nicest distinctions of art, and the ear, of various sounds.  Indeed, there is this wonderful peculiarity in our organization, which points out to us our duty, in the proper use and exercise of every part of the mind and body, that the vital current may flow in that direction, not only to repair the waste consequent on that exercise, but to enlarge and strengthen it to perform its operations with greater ease; and the reverse of this is manifest when any part of the body or mind is not exercised or disciplined, as it then loses its energy and power of performance.

    We have said that the mental powers have various and distinct properties; and though it is not necessary to our object to go into the particulars of these, nor the various metaphysical opinions respecting them, it will greatly assist us in our explanations, to describe them as intellectual and moral faculties;—all of which faculties may be well or badly trained, according to the knowledge and discipline bestowed; in other words, as the individual may have been subjected to a PROPER or IMPROPER COURSE OF EDUCATION.

    A man's intellectual faculties may be highly cultivated, and yet he may be a very worthless and immoral member of society, for want of that moral education necessary to control his animal feelings, and to direct his intellect to the performance of his social and political duties.

    Another man may have his moral faculties disciplined to perform continuous acts of kindness and benevolence, and may possess the strongest feelings of awe and veneration; and yet, for the want of intellectual cultivation, may have his goodness of disposition daily imposed upon by knaves and impostors, and his credulity diverted to superstition and fanaticism.

    The animal faculties being in common with the brute creation, he who is without intellect to guide and morality to direct them, will differ little from the brutes in the gratification of them.

    Examples of great intellectual attainments without morality are to be found among all classes of society; from the university-taught gentleman who uses his talent to gratify his interest or ambition at the expense of justice, to the experienced swindler or learned impostor, who lives by defrauding and imposing on his fellow-men.  And no men are fitter or more likely to become the dupes of such persons than those whose moral faculties are matured and intellectual ones neglected.  Examples of strong animal propensities, without the reins of intellect and morality to govern them, are seen in those mothers who spoil their children by their ignorant indulgence of their inclinations in those unions founded on mere animal love or instinctive attachment, which occasion much social misery; in gluttony, drunkenness, profligacy, debauchery, and extreme vice of every description.  Hence it will be seen that "EDUCATION," to be useful, such as will tend to make wise and worthy members of the community, must comprise the judicious development and training of ALL the human faculties, and not, as is generally supposed, the mere teaching of "reading, writing, and arithmetic," or even the superior attainments of our colleges, Greek, Latin, and polite literature."

    We have said that good education embraces the cultivation of all the mental and bodily faculties; for be it remembered, that all individuals (unless they are malformed or diseased) possess the same kind of faculties, though they may materially differ in size and power, just as men and women differ in size and strength from each other.  All men are not gifted with great strength of body or powers of intellect, but all are so wisely and wonderfully endowed, that all have capacities for becoming intelligent, moral, and happy members of society; and if they are not, it is for want of their capacities being so properly cultivated, as to cause them to live in accordance with the physical laws of their nature, the social institutions of man, and the moral laws of God.  Education will cause every latent seed of the mind to germinate and spring up into useful life, which otherwise might have lain buried in ignorance, and died in the corruptions of its own nature; thousands of our countrymen, endowed with all the capabilities for becoming the guides and lights of society, from want of this glorious blessing, are doomed to grovel in vice and ignorance, to pine in obscurity and want.  Give to a man knowledge, and you give him a light to perceive and enjoy beauty, variety, surpassing ingenuity, and majestic grandeur which his mental darkness previously concealed from him—enrich his mind and strengthen his understanding, and you give him powers to render all art and nature subservient to his purposes—call forth his moral excellence in union with his intellect, and he will apply every power of thought and force of action to enlighten ignorance, alleviate misfortune, remove misery, and banish vice; and, as far as his abilities permit, to prepare a highway to the world's happiness.

    There is every reason, however, for supposing that many persons have been led to doubt the great benefits of education, from what they have witnessed of the dissipated and improper conduct of those who have had great wealth expended on their education; and that others, observing the jealousies, contentions, and ambition of men professedly learned, have been led to inquire "whether educated men are happier than those who are ignorant."  But from want of moral training in unison with intellectual acquirements, such characters cannot be said to be "educated," in the proper sense of the term; they have knowledge without wisdom, and power without the motive to goodness.  But as regards "happiness," (which may be defined to mean the highest degree of pleasurable sensations,) we think we may safely aver that the ignorant many can never be truly happy.  He cannot even enjoy the same animal happiness in eating, drinking, and sleeping as the brute; for the demands society requires from him in return for these enjoyments give him anxieties, cares, and toil which the brute does not experience.  The instinct, too, which nature has bestowed on the lower animals to guide their appetites, seems to give them superior advantages over a man destitute of knowledge.  For, ignorant of his own nature, and needing the control of reason, he is continually marring his own happiness by his follies or his vices.  Wanting moral perceptions, the temptations that surround him frequently seduce him to evil, and the penalties society inflict on him punish him without reclamation.  Ignorant of the phenomena of nature, he becomes credulous, superstitious, and bigoted—an easy prey to the cunning and deceitful; and, bewildered by the phantoms of his own ignorant imaginings, he is miserable while living, and afraid of dying.

    But, it may be asked, what proofs can be adduced to show that the truly educated man is the happier for being so?  We will anticipate such a question, and endeavour to afford such proofs as, to us, appear clear and conclusive.  In the first place, nature has given to most of her children a faculty for acquiring knowledge, which, once quickened and directed by education, is continually gratified with its acquisitions, and ever deriving fresh pleasures in new pursuits and accumulation of knowledge.  To give the greatest delight to those who wisely exercise this faculty, nature has provided a multitudinous variety to be investigated and enjoyed; she has spread out her wonders around them, and unfolded her beauties to their gaze.  By giving them the power to transmit their acquirements to posterity, she has opened to their mental view the whole arcane of science and range of art, to afford them unlimited sources of enjoyment.—In the next place, nature has in her bounty conferred on them all the powers of moral superiority and social gratification, which, if wisely cultivated, afford them pleasures inexhaustible.  Those noble attributes of man's nature, ever stimulating him to great deeds and good actions, cast a continual sunshine over the mind of him who obeys their dictates; they render his life useful, and give him peace and hope in the hour of death.  Nor can any cultivated man for a moment doubt these positions; he has the proof and evidence in his own feelings, and his righteous actions will afford the best testimony to the rest of mankind.

    From what we have said on the nature and intention of education, we think its importance must begin to be evident; for what man is there who, in inquiring into the laws of his nature, finds that his own individual happiness is a condition dependent on the cultivation of his mental and moral powers, but will readily admit the importance and necessity of proper education?

    But let us proceed from individual to social considerations, (for individual happiness seems to be dependent on social arrangements,) and inquire how far a man's happiness is marred or retarded by the ignorance, and the consequent vices, that prevail in society.  If his acquirements enable him to perceive the necessity for improving the social institutions of his country, in order to advance the prosperity, knowledge, and happiness of his neighbours, their prejudices, selfishness, and cupidity are formidable obstacles to deter him from the attempt.  If he be engaged in any trade or profession, and desire to exercise his calling with honesty and conscientiousness, he is exposed to the united rivalry of all those who find their gains promoted, and rank upheld by dishonesty and injustice, or the fraudulent system they have established is such as speedily to drive him from his business or consign him to poverty.  If he be the father of a family, and desirous of promoting the happiness of his children by rendering them intelligent, moral, and useful, he cannot with all his anxiety guard them from the contaminating effects of social vice.  The ears of his children are assailed by brutal and disgusting language in the midst of his dwelling, their eyes meet with corruption and evil in every street, and seductions and temptations await them in every corner.  Should their youthful years be happily preserved from those influences, they are no sooner ushered into society, than they are beset with all its selfish, lying, defrauding, and mind-debasing vices; and they must be strong indeed in mind and steadfast in morality, to Withstand these tests without pollution;—and many a fond parent who has reared up his children with tender solicitude, whose most cherished hopes have been centred in their welfare, has seen them all gradually engulfed in the vices and corruptions of social life.  If a man be poor, he is subjected to all the evils of social injustice; and if he be wealthy, his life and possessions are continually jeopardised by the vicious and criminal victims of ignorance: in fact, in no situation in society can a man be so circumstanced, as to escape the evils inflicted or occasioned by the ignorance of others.

    Can any man of reflection fail in perceiving that most of these social evils have their origin in ignorance?  What but the want of information to perceive their true interest, and the want of moral motives to pursue it, can induce the wealthier classes of society to perpetuate a system of oppression and injustice which in its reaction fills our gaols with criminals, our land with paupers, and our streets with prostitution and intemperance?  What but the want of intellectual and moral culture occasion our middle-class population to spend their careworn lives in pursuing wealth or rank through all the soul-debasing avenues of wrong; and, after all their anxiety to secure the objects of their ambition, find they have neglected the substantial realities of happiness in the pursuit of its phantom?  And what shall we say of that large portion of our population who have been born in evil and trained in vice?—nay, whose very organization, in many instances, has been physically and mentally injured by the criminality of their parents? [7]  Their perceptions continually directed to evil, their notions of right and wrong perverted by pernicious example, and thereby taught that the gratification of their animal appetites is the end and object of their existence, can we wonder that they become the hardened pests of society, or, rather, the victims of social and political neglect—beings whom punishments fail to deter from evil, and for whom prisons, penitentiaries, laws, precepts, and sermons are made in vain?  What man, then, perceiving these lamentable results of ignorance, and possessing the least spark of benevolence, is not prepared at once to admit the necessity for beginning our social reformation at the root of the evil, by establishing a wise and just system of education?

    But if we want further proofs to convince us of its necessity, let us turn from our social to our political arrangements.  The fact of an insignificant portion of the people arrogating to themselves the political rights and powers of the whole, and persisting in making and enforcing such laws as are favourable to their own "order," and inimical to the interests of the many, afford a strong argument in proof of the ignorance of those who submit to such injustice.  And when we find that vast numbers of those who are thus excluded readily consent to be drilled and disciplined, and used as instruments to keep all the rest in subjection, the proofs of their ignorance appear conclusive.  And even those who possess the franchise, (or nominal power of the state,) if we may judge from their actions, are not more distinguished for their wisdom than those mercenaries; for, after selecting their representatives in the most whimsical manner—some for their titles of nobility or honour; others for their lands, interest, or party; and some for having bought them with money or promises—they support them in every extravagance and folly, and submit to be plundered and oppressed in a thousand forms, to uphold what they pompously designate "the dignity of this great nation."  And surely the annual catalogue of crimes in this country of itself affords lamentable proofs of the ignorance or wickedness of public men, and their great neglect of their public duties.  Those will stand in the records of the past as black memorials against the boasted civilization and enlightened philanthropy of England, whose legislators are famed for devising modes of punishing, and in numerous instances for fostering crime, exhibiting, year after year, presumptive proofs in their omission to prevent it.  It will be said of them, that they allowed the children of misery to be instructed in vice, and for minor delinquencies subjected them to severity of punishment which matured and hardened them in crime; that, callous to consequences, they had gone through all the gradations of wretchedness, from the common prison to the murderer's cell, that their judges gravely doomed them to die, gave them wholesome advice and the hopes of repentance; and, when the fruits of their neglect and folly were exhibited on the gallows, they gave the public an opportunity of feasting their brutal appetites with the quivering pangs of maddened and injured humanity.  Whether, then, we view man individually, socially, or politically—whether as parent, husband, or brother, there is no situation he can be placed in, in which his happiness will not be marred by ignorance, and in which it would not be promoted by the spread of knowledge and wisdom.

    Convinced of the importance of an improved system of education, we think there needs little to convince any one of the necessity of its being made as general as possible; for, if the effects of ignorance are so generally detrimental to happiness, the remedy must be sought for in the general dissemination of knowledge;—we see and feel enough of the effects of partial knowledge, to warn us against the evil of instructing one portion of society, and suffering the other to remain in ignorance.  What, but the superior cunning and ingenuity of the few, and the ignorance of the many, have led to the establishment of our landed monopoly in its present state—our trading and commercial monopolies—our legislative and municipal monopolies—our church and college monopolies—and, in short, all the extremes of wealth and wretchedness which characterize our fraudulent system?  In fact, the cunning and trickery which uphold this system have become so evident, that all those who seek to profit by it, are not so much induced to send their children to schools and universities to acquire knowledge for its own sake, or to make them better or more useful members of society, as they are to qualify them to rise in it; in other words, to enable them to live in idleness and extravagance on the industry of other people.  This state-pauperizing disposition, this aristocratic contempt for all useful labour, is to be traced to our defective education; and knowledge will be found to be the only remedy for this, as well as for the vices, follies, and extravagances of the few.  If the blessings of education were generally diffused—if honesty and justice were daily inculcated among all classes of society, it would, ere long, lead to a more just and general diffusion of the blessings of industry.  But as long as one part of the community feel it to be their interest to cultivate mere power-and-wealth-acquiring knowledge, and, as far as they can, to prevent or retard the enlightenment of all but themselves, so long will despotism, inequality, and injustice, flourish among the few; and poverty, vice, and crime, be the lot of the many.

    But, while we are anxious to see a general system of education adopted, we have considerable doubts of the propriety of yielding such an important duty as the education of our children to any government, and the strongest abhorrence of giving any such power to an irresponsible one.  While we are desirous of seeing a uniform and just system of education established, we must guard against the influenced of irresponsible power and public corruption; and, therefore, we are opposed to all concentration of power beyond that which is absolutely necessary to make and execute the laws; for, independent of its liability to become corrupt, it destroys local energies, and prevents experiments and improvements, which it is most desirable should be fostered, for the advancement of knowledge, and prostrates the whole nation before one uniform, and, it may be, despotic power.  We perceive the results of this concentration of irresponsible power and uniformity of system lamentably exemplified in Prussia, and other parts of the continent, where the lynx-eyed satellites of power carefully watch over the first indications of intelligence, to turn it to their advantage, and to crush in embryo the buddings of freedom; and, judging from the disposition our own government evince to adopt the liberty-crushing policy of their continental neighbours, we have every reason to fear that, were they once entrusted with the education of our children, they would pursue the same course to mould them to their purpose.  Those who seek to establish in England the continental schemes of instruction, tell us of the intelligence, the good behaviour, and politeness of their working-class population but they forget to tell us that, to talk of right or justice, in many of those countries—to read a liberal newspaper or book, inculcating principles of liberty, is to incur the penalty of banishment or the dungeon.  They forget to tell us that, with all the instruction of the people, they submit to the worst principles of despotism; that life and property, as well as all the powers and offices of the state, are mostly vested in one man or his minions, and that the vilest system of espionage is everywhere established to secure his domination.  They omit to inform us, that parents are compelled, under heavy penalties, to send their children to the public schools, where the blessings of despotism, and reverence for the reigning despot, are inculcated and enforced by all the arts and ingenuity submissive teachers can invent and that all those who brave the penalties, and teach their children themselves, are subject to infamous surveillance, and their children declared incapacitated to hold any office in the state.  Bowed down and oppressed as we already are, we manage to keep alive the principles and spirit of liberty; but, if ever knavery and hypocrisy succeed in establishing this centralizing, state-moulding, knowledge-forcing scheme in England, so assuredly will the people degenerate into passive submission to injustice, and their spirit sink into the pestilential calm of despotism.

    With every respectful feeling towards those philanthropists whose eloquence first awakened us to the importance of education, and whose zeal to advance it will ever live in our remembrance, we have seen sufficient to convince us that many of those who stand in the list of education-promoters, are but state-tricksters, seeking to make it an instrument of party or faction.  We perceive that one is for moulding the infant mind upon the principles of church and state, another is for basing its morals on their own sectarianism, and another is for an harmonious amalgamation of both; in fact, the great principles of human nature, social morality, and political justice, are disregarded, in the desire of promoting their own selfish views and party interests.  From the experiments already made, at home and abroad, they see sufficient to convince them of the importance of early impressions; and hence their eager desire to mould the plastic mind to their own notions of propriety.  They also see that the flood-gates of knowledge are opened, and that its purifying stream is rolling onward with rapidity; and fearing their own corrupt interests may be endangered, they seek to turn it from its course by every means and stratagem their ingenuity can invent.

    If our government were based upon Universal Suffrage to-morrow, we should be equally opposed to the giving it any such powers in education, as some persons propose to invest it; its power should be of an assisting and not an enforcing character.  Public education ought to be a right—a right derivable from society itself, as society implies a union for mutual benefit, and, consequently, to provide publicly for the security and proper training off all its members.  The public should also endeavour to instruct the country, through a board of instructors, (popularly chosen,) on the best plans of education or modes of training; and should induce, by prizes or otherwise, men of genius and intelligence to aid them in devising the best.  After their plans have been matured, and the greatest publicity given to them, the people should be called upon to choose (by universal suffrage,) two members from each county, to form a special body, to consider such plans, and to amend, adopt, or reject them, as they may think proper; leaving those in the minority to till adopt such plans as their constituents may approve of, the merits of the plans selected by the majority became obvious to all.  Such a mode as this would be more in accordance with liberty and justice than the legal enforcement of any particular plans of education, as of all other subjects it involves greater consequences of good or evil.  Government, then, should provide the means for erecting schools of every description, wherever they may be deemed necessary; and empower the inhabitants of the respective districts to elect their own superintendents and teachers, (if qualified in normal schools,) and to raise a district rate for the support of the school and remuneration of the teachers.  If we had a liberal government to do this for the education—if the whole people were to be interested in the subject, through popular election, instead of a select clique, we might safely trust to the progress of knowledge and power of truth to render it popular, as well as to cause the best plans, ere long, to be universally adopted.  But from our government no such liberality is to be expected—we have every thing to fear from it, but nothing to hope for; hence, we have addressed ourselves to you, working men of Britain, and you of the middle classes who feel yourselves identified with them, as you are the most interested in the establishment of a wise and just system of education.  And we think we have said sufficient to convince you of the necessity of guarding against those state and party schemes some persons are intent on establishing, as well as to induce you to commence the great work of education yourselves, on the most liberal and just plan you can devise, and by every exertion to render it as general as possible; hoping that the day is not distant when your political franchise will give you the power to extend it with rapidity throughout the whole empire.

    Having briefly given our views of the nature, intention, and importance of education, the next part of our subject necessarily embraces the particular description of education to be pursued in the different schools, and the best mode of imparting it.

    The first difficulty we shall have to surmount in our progress will be the teaching of the teachers; and the particular instruction, or mode of training, which they will require, necessarily appertain to the NORMAL OR TEACHERS' SCHOOLS.  The establishment of one (at least,) of those schools should therefore be one of the first objects of the association.  Whatever may be its particular plan, we think it should be so constructed as to contain an infant, preparatory, and high school, into which children of all ages should be admitted, and in which the persons learning to be teachers shall be taught a practical knowledge of the system of education.  It should also contain a library, museum, laboratory, sitting-rooms, and sleeping-rooms for the teachers and directors.  There should be two general teachers, or DIRECTORS, possessing an intimate knowledge of the best plans and modes of education, and well qualified in the art of imparting it with effect and kindness of disposition.  While every encouragement should be given for the gratuitous instruction of all those desirous of being qualified as teachers, great care and discrimination would be necessary in guarding against the admission of persons who possess neither the disposition, aptitude, nor capabilities for efficient teachers.  The educational students should commence with the infant school, and, when proficient in that department, should proceed to the preparatory school; and so on, till they become conversant with every part of the system. [8]  Their time should be so divided, that it should be spent in the schools, and in studying the best works on the subject; in attending to the lectures or discourses of the directors, and in discussions and conversations among themselves.  The time necessary properly to qualify a teacher must (in our first arrangements,) be made to depend on the judgment of the directors; but after our plans are matured, it may be found necessary to fix the time each person shall study in a normal school to qualify him or her for a teacher; and eventually no persons should be employed in the schools of the association but those who could produce a certificate, signed by the directors, testifying their competency.  But one important duty must not be neglected by the people themselves— that of rewarding and honouring the teachers of their children, as this will be the best means of perfecting the science of education, by an accession of men of genius and intelligence, who otherwise will seek rewards and honours in other pursuits.


 
THE INFANT SCHOOL.


A school of this description might be conducted by a female teacher and an assistant, if the teacher had received her instruction in a normal school.  The first requisite she should possess, is a disposition to win the affectionate confidence of the little beings committed to her care; to effect which, she must supply the place of an attentive, kind, and intelligent parent.  The first object to be achieved, is to render the school-room a little world of love, of lively and interesting enjoyments; and its attainment will mainly depend upon the benevolent, cheerful, and instructive disposition of the teacher.

    Her acquirements should extend, in the first, to a general knowledge of the human frame and constitution, and the best mode of preserving the children in full health and vigour, embraced in the terms PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

    Second, she should have a clear idea of the human intellect, and should possess a knowledge and aptitude for judiciously developing its perceptive, comparative, and reflective powers, comprised in the words INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION.

    Third, she should fully comprehend the moral capabilities, and the laws which govern the feelings; and should understand the means by which they may be so quickened, directed, and trained, that the child shall aspire to greatness and goodness of character, and be able to govern his passions by his reason;—the whole expressed by the terms MORAL EDUCATION.

    In addition to these essential requisites, she should possess a knowledge of music, have a voice for singing, and be able to express herself clearly and grammatically.  She should also possess the love of order, have a refined taste, should be courteous in her manners, and prudent and respectful in her whole conduct.  For as her peculiarities will be readily imitated by the children, and her example produce a lasting effect on them, she should be to them, as far as possible, a standard of excellence worthy of imitation.

    It has been found by experience that the best mode of establishing an infant school is to begin with a few children; and, after they have made some little progress, gradually to introduce others.  By this means, a system of order will be sooner established than if a great number be brought together at once.

    The school hours must necessarily vary in different districts, according to the habits of the people; but whatever time is fixed on for the opening of the school should be punctually observed.  The boys and girls should enter by their respective doorways, and each one, being provided with a place in the cloak-room for his or her hat or cloak, should be instructed to hang it under a particular number; they should then proceed to their seats in the school-room, which should have corresponding numbers.  As a means of cleanliness and health, door-mats should be placed at each entrance, and cleanly habits in every particular must be scrupulously insisted upon.  Some little trouble will be necessary at first to enforce those two essentials, cleanliness and punctuality of attendance; but by judicious management, in a short time the public opinion of the school will extend to the homes of the children, and serve to awaken inattentive parents to their duties.  At the ringing of a bell, the school should be formally opened by the children singing some appropriate piece, and no person should be admitted into the room until its conclusion.  They should then be engaged with their lessons in the school-room, and amusement and exercise in the play-ground, alternately, according to the state of the weather, and the arrangements of the school but one great point to be attended to by the teacher, is not to allow them to be over-exerted either with their lessons or their play, though the air, exercise, and moral training of the play-ground are of paramount importance.

    The classification of both sexes, according to their ages, will be found necessary, as there is reason to suppose that the older children will be more advanced in knowledge than the younger, and because they are too apt to tyrannize over them.  They should therefore be classed, six or eight in a class, as may be found most convenient; and a class-teacher should be appointed weekly to each class.  This method of causing children to teach each other is so much in accordance with their desires and feelings, begetting in one an anxiety to qualify himself to teach, and calling forth the mental and speaking faculties of the other, that this of itself is sufficient to cause us to revere the name of Joseph Lancaster.  The class-teacher should see to the attendance, cleanliness, order, and proficiency of his class; and should be carefully watched, to see that he properly and courteously perform his duties.  He should, however, have no power in the play-ground;—when there, he should have full and unconstrained liberty, as the other children, subject only to the watchful eyes of the teacher and assistant.

    Having slightly glanced at these preliminaries, we now come to the mode of education; and here we would especially impress on you, that no faculty of mind or body can be educated without it is properly exercised.

    In physical education, for instance, the mere teaching of a child that pure air and exercise are necessary to preserve him in health and strength, is of little use; he must not only be made to perceive, by a judicious course of instruction, how and why they are essential, but he must be made to feel their importance, by such proper means of exercise as the play-ground should afford, till the conviction and habit became blended, as it were, with his very nature.  He should be made to understand, by the most simple explanations, why pure air is necessary to health, and how all kinds of animals linger and perish if they are deprived of it.  He should have the different parts of the body familiarly explained to him, and a general idea given of his animal functions; and why it is that exercise is necessary to health and strength.  There will be some difficulty in conveying this knowledge to a child; but unless a general idea of it be conveyed, the mere advice or precept to do or avoid doing any particular act will be useless.  He may be constrained to perform any duty in obedience to the commands of his parents or his teachers, just as a dog is taught to fetch or carry a stick; but the importance of doing it will have no effect, till they are fixed by conviction and rooted by habit.  If, however, the teacher fully understands these subjects herself, and has an aptitude for conveying knowledge, she will, by a little additional trouble, make them clear to her pupils; and in her subsequent teaching she will find herself well rewarded for having laid a good foundation. [9]

    The best description of exercise is that which brings the greatest number of muscles into proper exertion, and which, at the same time, affords rational pleasure.  Much, however, remains to be done in devising proper exercises for children;—many of those in common practice are found to produce physical injury to weak constitutions, and others to produce irrational associations.  The rotary swing, which is used in many schools, is well adapted for strong children; shuttle-cock, if played with both hands—dancing in the open air—together with such evolutions as may describe the actions and habits of different animals which children are fond of imitating, will be sufficient exercise for the children in the play-ground.  The manual exercise, as it is called, descriptive of different notions and actions, will be found highly beneficial for in-door exercise in bad weather.  But a skilful teacher will readily invent games and amusements for the children, will join with them in their play, and, when all their faculties are in full activity, will inculcate many intellectual and moral lessons.

    In intellectual education no real knowledge can be acquired but by the exercise of the perceptive, comparative, and reflective powers.  The child may be burthened with a multitude of words—mere barren symbols of realities of which it has no cognizance, with imaginary notions of every description—mere treasured phrases, imbibed from every source, without inquiry or knowledge of the reality,—it may be furnished with rules, figures, facts, and problems by rote without examination, and consequently valueless for practical purposes;—all these acquisitions failing to produce clear ideas, and forming no real basis for reflection or judgment, cannot, therefore, be properly designated real knowledge.  Yet this word-teaching, rote-learning, memory-loading system is still dignified with the name of "education;" and those who are stored with the most lumber are frequently esteemed the greatest "scholars."  Seeing this, need we wonder that many scholars have so little practical or useful knowledge, are superficial in reasoning, defective in judgment, and wanting in their moral duties? or that the greatest blockheads at school often make brighter men than those whose intellects have been injured by much cramming?

    Real knowledge must be conveyed by realities; the thing itself must be made evident to one or more of the senses, to convey a knowledge of its form, size, colour, weight, texture, or other qualities.  Those perceptive powers, being continually exercised by the observation of various objects, become gradually strengthened and matured, and the knowledge of their qualities rooted in the memory.  It is the high cultivation of those faculties that gives the artist and sculptor such nice perceptions of the tints, forms, and symmetry of their productions.  In order, therefore, to educate the perceptive powers of the child, he must be directed to observe things, their qualities must be things, evident to his senses; he must be taught, in the first place, to observe their most obvious properties and characteristics, and as his mind expands he must be made acquainted with all their other qualities.

    After his perceptive powers have been awakened by observation, and the qualities of things impressed upon his memory, the next object is to stimulate and educate his comparative powers.  To effect which, his attention should be directed to the differences and similitudes of objects in all their various qualities, to compare their relative forms, position, distances, arrangement, number, &c.

    Then his reflective powers should be directed to the why and wherefore of all those forms, qualities, analogies, and differences which have previously occupied his attention.  This mode of proceeding will gradually cultivate his discriminating and reflective powers as regards realities, and will lay the foundation of clear and consecutive reasoning.

    But in conveying this knowledge of things to a child, the teacher must be careful as regards over exerting its attention, and also guard against confusing it, which she will be apt to do, if she proceeds to describe or direct attention to one object after another in rapid succession, and goes through all their various qualities, uses, &c.  She must proceed step by step, and be certain that her little pupils have clear ideas on one point before she proceeds to another; otherwise they will get confused, or imbibe her explanations by rote, without understanding them.  The teacher should also see that, while the children's attention is directed to the acquisition of the various kinds of knowledge referred to, they should be taught the medium by which they acquire it; that is, they should be familiarly and practically taught the uses of the senses.

    But in teaching children a knowledge of things, a knowledge of words must not be neglected; and in the usual mode of teaching those two essentials, there appears to us to be a deficiency for which we presume to suggest a remedy.  The deficiency seems to us to be in this particular: the child's attention is first directed to things and their qualities, and the words which express them are repeated by the teacher; and according to the strength of the child's memory they are retained there.  His attention is next directed to a reading lesson, (probably with a picture at its head;) now, though he may have previously heard the various words of this lesson, or may have many of them treasured up, yet, when he sees them in print, they appear to him as Greek or Hebrew characters appear to us, and he has to undergo a second discipline, to enable him to connect the ideas he has retained in his memory with those words; or, if he has not retained the ideas previously taught him, he has to get the words by rote.  In short, there appears to be wanting in this mode of teaching a closer connection of words and things.  The following plan for their more intimate connection will, in our opinion, effect this object; and will also supply the best spelling and reading lessons for the INFANT SCHOOL, and in the PREPARATORY SCHOOL will be found highly useful for teaching a knowledge of grammar and composition.


A Case of Moveable Types. [10.]


    The above sketch represents a case, or shallow box, containing moveable types or letters, constructed as follows: The types should be made of beech, about a quarter of an inch in thickness, and varying in size according to the size of the letters.  The letters should be printed in large, bold type, on tough paper, and should be fixed on to the types, (or bits of wood,) with thin glue.  Instead of gluing them on singly, it will be better to glue them on a slip the whole width of the case, and cut them off with a fine saw, and trim them when the whole is dry.  There should be two sets of Roman, and two sets of small capitals, in each case, together with two or three extra of those sorts of letters most used, such as e, t, o, i, a, n, &c.  The cases may vary in size as the lessons may require; those twelve inches by ten will be a good size for the infant school.  They should be made of plane-tree, or of wood not liable to warp; the sides to be half an inch thick and one inch deep, which should be grooved in the inside for both top and bottom.  They should be mitred, keyed, and glued, and the bottom be put in at the same time they are glued together; and slips glued on the bottom in the inside, about a quarter of an inch wide, to separate each row of letters.  The types must be made to fit in the case, so that they may easily be picked up; and if the slips between each row are made a little thinner than the types, it will facilitate this.  The top, or lid, of the case should be made to slide easily towards the right hand.  A number of slips must also be glued upon the lid of the case, (as seen in the sketch,) in which the words are to be composed.

    We will now endeavour to describe the mode of using those types in the infant school.  Instead of "lesson posts," usually adopted in those schools, we would suggest that stands (something like a reading-stand) be substituted in different parts of the room, for holding the letter cases; and if they were made with a drawer in each, for containing the case and objects when not in use, it would save the teacher much trouble.  When the time for their object-lesson has arrived, the class-teacher marches his little class up to the stand, and arranges them in a half circle; and having properly placed his case, and got ready his objects, he takes up his position on the right of the stand within the circle, mounted on a little stool, and provided with a short pointing-stick.  He then takes an object from his collection, (or shows them the card or picture, as it may be,) and passes it round for the inspection of his class, and then asks them its name.  Some one of the children will most probably inform him; but if they are all unacquainted with it, it becomes the duty of the class-teacher to instruct them.  Supposing one of them says, "It is a pea," the class-teacher then requests one of them to compose "A Pea;" he accordingly picks up the letters from the case, and arranges them (as is seen in the sketch) on its lid.  After it is thus composed, he requests another child to spell and read what is composed; and so he proceeds, giving them different objects, asking them their names, then to compose those names, and then to spell and read them.  By permitting those that can to name the object, will quicken the faculties of all; and by calling upon them alternately, one to compose, and another to spell, it will arrest the attention of the whole; when, if they were asked in rotation, those who had had their turn would be inattentive.  In giving this example, however, it is assumed that the children have been previously instructed in a knowledge of the letter case, and also to distinguish the capitals from the smaller letters, and their use.  For the first class of children it will be necessary to select those objects that are easily spelled, as pea, tin, nut, wax, lead, iron, &c.; and, if they are pictures of animals, such as cat, dog, ass, goat, sheep, horse, &c.

    After they have thus learned to understand the words conveying the names of those objects which are easily spelt, their attention should be directed to their most obvious qualities, as "Tin is heavy," "Wax is soft," &c., which sentences they should be taught to compose and spell as before.  By thus presenting familiar objects to their senses, then teaching them their names, then the letters that compose them, and then their sounds, we give them a clear conception of words: and by their handling the objects and letters, we interest them in every step of their progress.  By this simple contrivance the children can spell be taught to spell without the use of books, and without the mischievous system usually pursued of tasking and over-burthening the memory with words, which, when acquired, are useless till the objects or qualities they represent are made evident to the senses of the child.  Reading can also be taught with facility by this method; and being always in connection with things and their properties, the knowledge thus conveyed is more likely to be comprehended and impressed on the memory, than if the child had to spell and stumble his way through a long paragraph, the sense of which he would in all probability lose, from the difficulties he would meet with, and the want of clear and definite associations.  The arrangement of the words by the method suggested would also enable the teacher to convey incidentally the grammatical meaning of several of them; but this would be of little importance in the infant school.  If figures be substituted for letters on the types, the children may be taught the use and value of figures, though the properties and elements of numbers should always be taught by real objects; therefore, it would be well to use Mr. Wilderspin's arithmeticon in connection with the types. [11]  In fact, the letter-case, in the hands of a skilful teacher, will, as we conceive, be found a pleasing instrument for conveying a vast fund of information to the mind of a child.

    During the time the children are thus occupied with their lessons under their respective class-teachers, the teacher and assistant should be engaged in superintending and instructing them; and a variety of questions may be put and information given at those times, which may have a very beneficial tendency.

    In order to impress particular objects on the memory, as well as to cultivate their tastes and perceptions of beauty, the room should be ornamented with well-executed, coloured prints, or drawings, in natural history, zoology, astronomy, and machinery, together with neat models, and a few specimens of minerals and fossils; and at different times their attention should be directed to them, and their use and characteristics explained.  The teacher should also give them an idea of angles, squares, circles, &c., from objects, or from various instruments and models, which can be cheaply obtained for that purpose.  For instructing them in a knowledge of weights and measures, it would be well if some of the smaller ones were introduced into a corner of the play-ground, as well as some clean sand for the children to weigh and measure, and let them prove by experiment that so many ounces make a pound, or pints a gallon; they should, however, be provided with a scoop, to prevent them from soiling their hands.  The most advanced class should be provided with small slates, on which they should be taught to form the outlines of squares, angles, circles, and eventually of letters, by copying from diagram-boards placed slantingly before them on the floor.  Nor should their tuneful powers be neglected, as the exercise of them would be both healthful and instructive; but care should be taken against practising them in any nursery nonsense, or in compositions they cannot understand.  Pieces inculcating their social and moral duties, or descriptive of beauty and perfection in nature or art, will be found the most useful.  The children should also be taught the elements of dancing, both for exercise of body and cheerfulness of mind.  While, however, much intellectual knowledge may be conveyed in a pleasing manner to little children, care must be taken to convey it clearly, however slowly the progress may be, and also that the child is not forced beyond its natural powers.

    Having given our opinion regarding the means of exercising and educating the physical and intellectual powers of the child, it is now necessary to advert to the most important feature in infant training, that of moral education.  And here we would again premise that the moral faculties must be positively exercised, the same as the intellectual or bodily faculties, in order to train or educate them; that is, each faculty must be separately appealed to by some exciting cause, and by constant exercise and discipline directed to such course and conduct as shall best promote the happiness of the individual, and of the society of which he is a member.

    We have already said that every individual possesses, in common with other animals, a great variety of animal inclinations; these are more active in some than in others, but they are more active in all than the nobler faculties, designated moral faculties.  Those animal propensities confer a great amount of happiness on the individual when they are governed by morality and directed by intellect; but otherwise, they dispose him to gratify his inclinations selfishly, cruelly, unjustly, and intemperately.  On the contrary, it is the nature of the moral faculties to predispose him to a love of justice, truth, benevolence, firmness, and respect for whatever is great and good;—but they need cultivation; and, unfortunately for mankind, the circumstances calculated for their development and cultivation are not placed so easily within the reach of individuals as are those circumstances which develop and bring the animal propensities into activity.  Perceiving this, the question for inquiry is, what are the means to be adopted for educating those nobler faculties of our nature, so that in conjunction with knowledge they may be made to direct wisely and temperately govern the selfish and sensual desires?  But will mere advice or precept be sufficient for this purpose? will these be sufficient to educate the moral any more than the intellectual powers of the mind?  And what course do we adopt to cultivate the intellectual faculties of our children?  Are we content with merely advising them to read, write, and cypher? with lauding the great advantages of mensuration? or with promising to reward them, if they will but excel in a knowledge of geometry?  Certainly not; for what possible good would such conduct effect? what conceptions can they form of those various kinds of knowledge, till they are made evident to their senses, and till their understandings are gradually trained to perceive and appreciate their importance?—then, indeed, will our precepts be responded to by their convictions, but till then will be of little use.  Should not this common sense mode of educating one set of faculties be our guide for another? nay, does not experience prove that, if we would succeed in cultivating the moral faculties, we must proceed in precisely the same manner as we do with the intellectual?  For instance, if we would cultivate the love of justice in a child, we must first make the idea of justice evident to his sense, by pointing out to him such instances of injustice and impropriety as may occur in his own conduct or in that of others, and give him the reasons how and why be should have acted the reverse.  The love of truth should be cultivated in the same manner, though it forms an almost inherent principle in children, till they are taught falsehood by the example of their parents or others; but when so corrupted, they can only be cured by the same intellectual and moral discipline.  Benevolence, kindness, and humanity must be equally rendered obvious to the understanding; unhappily, examples of misery, unkindness, and cruelty are everywhere too prevalent.  Not that children should be taken out of their own sphere to witness them, but in their own little circle every opportunity should be embraced of directing their attention to any object, incident, act, or anecdote, calculated to give them correct ideas of the moral qualities sought to be conveyed, and then to quicken and discipline their moral faculties. [12]  As one means of calling forth and educating some of the higher faculties, we would suggest the establishment of a sick fund in every school.  By instructing them to make their own rules and conduct their own business, they will be readily brought to understand principles of law and justice, and rules of duty and obligation as members and officers; and by their visiting of their sick members (unless in infectious cases), they may be practically disciplined in kindness and humanity.  It would be also advisable to instruct them to make or amend such rules or regulation as may be necessary for the government of their play-ground, which should be hung up and appealed to when any one offended against them. [13]  All this may appear to some of trifling importance; but by such trifles a skilful teacher would convey more practical lessons of rights and duties than could be effected by volumes of theoretical learning.  The right of property is another important lesson which, if made evident to the intellect, will, in connection with their love of justice, be found the best security against all kinds of pilfering and dishonesty.  To call forth their respect and admiration for all that is truly great and good, the teacher should be assiduous in directing their attention to any such acts whenever they occur, and she should occasionally read and explain to them anecdotes of great deeds and good actions; not of heroes and conquerors, the pests of our race, but of those whose acts and deeds have augmented the amount of human happiness.  They should also be taught the importance of useful labour and the value of industry, by showing them how labour is required for the cultivation of the earth, in order to provide us with food, raiment, and habitation, as well as to convert its productions into articles for our necessity and comfort; and also that our bodies are so organized that the exercise of moderate labour improves our health;—and, therefore, seeing that labour is necessary, and that all are benefitted by it, seeing all ought to labour and be industrious, according to their abilities; and that all those who, under any pretence, evade their fair share, act unjustly and dishonestly towards their brethren, by imposing on them such additional burthens of labour as to injure their health and diminish their happiness.  While they should be taught to value and respect the acquisitions of honest industry, they should be made to perceive the injustice of ill-acquired possessions, and to despise every description of luxury, extravagance, and dissipation which corrupts society, and diminishes the general amount of human enjoyment.

    Nor must their imaginative powers be neglected; to develop which, their attention should be directed to the various points of beauty, grandeur, and sublimity which are seen in the glowing landscape, the flowing stream, the storm, the sunshine, and the fragile flower; and, above all, the radiant glory of a star-light night.  Such lessons will teach them to soar beyond the grovelling pursuits of vice and sordid meanness.

    As affording the best means of regulating their appetites and desires, they should be familiarly instructed in their uses and functions, and shown how undue gratification proves injurious to health and morals;—how all their faculties of mind and body are governed by peculiar laws, which laws must be obeyed, to insure health and happiness; and that, whenever they are disobeyed, sickness of body, pain of mind, or injury to their neighbours, are certain to be the inevitable result.

    While much moral instruction may be conveyed in the school-room, the play-ground will be found the best place for moral training; where all their faculties will be active, and when their dispositions and feelings will be displayed in a different manner than when they are in the schoolroom, where silence, order, and discipline should prevail.  But when in the play-ground, the teacher should incite them to amusement and activity, in order to develop their characters; and whenever any irregularity of conduct transpires, she should put forth her reasons rather than her authority;—her object should be to convince, rather than to chide them.  For if she attempts to restrain the passions or govern the moral feelings by a system of coercion, she will as surely fail in her object as most of chose who have gone before her.  Another mental faculty which requires great care and attention is the love of approbation;—this, when properly disciplined, is an essential requisite to greatness of character; but, when otherwise, it degenerates into low and selfish ambition.  The teacher would therefore do well to avoid all kinds of rewards and distinctions, so as to prevent all kinds of mental rivalry among her pupils; and she should also be careful in her praises and scrupulous in her censures.  For though such stimulants may call forth some of their intellectual powers, it will be in most cases at the expense of morality; for while those possessed of strong distinctive feelings will strive to excel and rival their fellows, their triumphs will call forth the envy, hatred, and hypocrisy of all those who, are outrivalled.  They should all be impressed with a high, sense of duty, each to perform and excel according to his abilities; and taught that nature having given them all different powers of mind and body, he who cultivates his powers and employs them to promote the happiness of society is sure to meet with the approval of all good men, independently of his own conscientious satisfaction.  In short, the teacher must make it an especial part of her duty to cultivate all the moral faculties, as they are of paramount importance; at least, she must lay a sound foundation.  She must remember that each faculty has particular functions to perform, and must be trained according to its peculiarities—that, necessary to all moral instruction, the intellect must be made to fully understand moral qualities, by rendering them obvious to the senses—and that each faculty must be awakened and disciplined by constantly exercising it, according to its nature, and under the guide of the intellect.

    In concluding these general observations on infant training, we have thought it unnecessary to refer to many points of management—to the heating and ventilating of the school, the particulars of the play-ground, or the different kinds of apparatus required for teaching.  There is one point, however, necessary to mention, as it involves a proposed alteration—it is this: in most infant schools, they have a gallery in one end of the room, for the simultaneous teaching of the children, an arrangement which, we think, might be dispensed with, seeing that the room would be wanted for other purposes of an evening.  We would therefore suggest that the side seats (constructed, like steps, one above another, like those generally used in infant schools) be made moveable, and in short lengths, so that they may be removed of an evening, if necessary; and also, when any simultaneous teaching is required, those at the furthest end of the room may be readily brought up, and extended across wherever they may be needed, so that, when the teacher is mounted on the rostrum, the children would both hear and see as well as in a gallery.


 
THE PREPARATORY SCHOOL.


    As will be seen by the plan of the district halls, we propose that the upper room of each be fitted up for the purposes of a PREPARATORY and HIGH SCHOOL, for both males and females, until more extensive arrangements can be made for building a greater number of schools in each district; but in order to preserve the separation of the two schools, as well as that of the two sexes, we recommend the arrangements as seen at page 42, by which it is proposed that the PREPARATORY SCHOOL be situated in the body of the room—the boys on the right hand, and the girls on the left, with a passage between them divided by a moveable hand-rail, or by any other means.  And as, in all probability, comparatively fewer children will attend the HIGH SCHOOL, we propose that a division be made in the upper end of the room (as seen in the plate) on each side of the rostrum—the boys on one side, and girls on the other.  If, however, the numbers in the respective schools vary considerably, other arrangements can easily be made to accommodate them.

    Instead of the usual writing-desks, which cramp the arms and distort the bodies of children, we propose that tables be instituted of the height required, made with drawers for holding their slates, books, and school apparatus: and that the forms be made with framed backs, as the spine is often injured from long sitting without such support; and if they are made of the height necessary for adults, by the placing of a foot-rail in front of the table, they will be equally convenient for the children to sit upon.  The rostrum, or platform for the teacher, should be made with steps in front, and of a size sufficient for the assistant to sit on; for the lecturers, &c., of an evening.  On each side of the room, in the piers between the windows, stands for the letter cases should be fixed, and so made, that they may let down close to the wall when not in use.

    The school room should be handsomely fitted up and decorated with maps, drawings, diagrams, and models, illustrative of the various branches of knowledge.  There should be a good coloured map of the world, another of Europe, one of the United Kingdom, and, if possible, a relief map of the county in which the school is situated.  There should also be large prints or drawings of the human skeleton, of the muscular system, and of the interior of the human body; also geological and mineralogical maps of the earth's strata; prints, or drawings of the solar system; of the mechanical powers; of perspective illustration; together with others of a like instructive tendency.  It should also be furnished with a pair of globes, with Hadley's quadrant, Fahrenheit's thermometer, the mariners' compass, geometrical models, models for drawing from, a cast or model of the human brain, as well as any curious specimen in nature or art of a useful and ornamental description.  The play-ground should also be provided with such useful gymnastic arrangements as may be necessary for the exercise of the children, as well as with any means or contrivance the teacher may think necessary for their instruction.  And it would be highly desirable if every such school had a piece of garden attached, by which the children may be taught some practical knowledge of horticulture and botany.  They should be allowed at least half an hour in the middle of the forenoon and afternoon of each day, as well as their dinner hour, for recreation and amusement in the play-ground, so that their health may be preserved by proper air and exercise, and their youthful spirits kept up in all their buoyancy, which the present system of confinement, tasking, and drilling materially tends to destroy.  Any objections that may exist against the association of boys and girls in the same play ground, may easily be obviated by the girls being allowed to play in the ground of the infant school, the time for the infants being there regulated accordingly.

    It would be advisable to have no schooling on the afternoons of Wednesday and Saturday, in order that the teacher and assistant might on those times take out the different classes in rotation, to teach them a knowledge of those objects which cannot be properly taught in the school room.

    The same order should also be observed in these schools respecting the children's hats, cloaks, and bonnets as in the lower school; a similar system of classification should be continued, and the same enforcement of cleanliness and regularity of attendance.

    The schools should be opened of a morning and closed of an evening with vocal music, the principles of which should form a part of the children's education; and the teacher should see that they retired to their respective homes with more order and regularity then are generally observed after school hours.

    In addition to the qualifications enumerated as essential for the teacher of the INFANT SCHOOL, the teacher in the PREPARATORY and HIGH SCHOOLS should possess the following requisites: he should write a fair hand, be a good arithmetician, have a general knowledge of mathematics and their practical application to the arts of life.  He should understand geography, so as to explain the position, resources, habits, and pursuits of different nations, and of his own country in particular; he should know so much of astronomy as to be able to explain the phenomena of the heavens, and of geology and mineralogy, as to impart a knowledge of the structure and wonders of the earth; he should possess some knowledge in natural history, so as to give an account of the animals on the earth's surface, and especially of his own species; he should have some knowledge of chemistry and skill in experiments, and should know so much of natural philosophy as to be able to explain the general causes and effects in nature; of political knowledge he should understand the basis of rights and duties, the principles and theory of government, the foundation of law and justice, and especially the political system adopted in his own country; he should understand the principles of political, or national, economy, comprising a knowledge of the production and distribution of wealth; he should know something of the philosophy of history, chronologically and biographically, so as to direct the children to distinguish truth from fable and falsehood, to detect deeds of shame and injustice beneath false coverings of glory and honour, to strip sophistry of its speciousness, interest of its panegyric, and heroes of their hollow fame; and, as far as possible, to extract wisdom from the black record of our species in their advance from barbarism towards civilization.  He should know something of botany, should have a taste for gardening, and be acquainted with agricultural pursuits; he should possess a knowledge of perspective, and have a taste for design, so as to be able to sketch correctly any object of art or nature: in addition to which, it would be well if he understood the first principles of the most useful trades.—Many persons may conceive that great difficulties will have to be surmounted before we shall have teachers qualified in all these particulars, and doubtless there will; but when we take into account the vast number of persons in this country possessing great knowledge and genius, who are now fagging as schoolmasters, clerks, office-writers, authors, or drudges of some kind, who would readily qualify themselves in a normal school, if by doing so they could improve their condition, we may safely rely on finding a sufficient number of qualified teachers, if we bestir ourselves to make and extend a profitable market for superior talent.

    The teacher's assistant should be able to write well, have some knowledge of arithmetic, should speak grammatically, have some skill in the use of her needle, should understand cutting out male and female garments, should possess a correct taste, have an aptitude for teaching, be of courteous manners, and have a good moral character.

    We now come to the mode of education to be adopted, and the particular kinds of knowledge to be imparted in the preparatory school.

    The object of this school being to effect a still further development of the physical, intellectual, and moral powers, we know no better mode than that we have already ready referred to.  To improve the physical powers of the children, the air and exercise of the play-ground will still be necessary; to mature their intellect, their perceptive, comparative, and reflective faculties must be exercised in observing and reasoning on realities; to strengthen and discipline their moral powers, they must be led to perceive and understand moral qualities, and be exercised and trained by external impressions.

    The kinds of information to be imparted, especially to the first class of children, must depend on their previous training; but presuming that they have been strengthened and much improved by going through the discipline of the infant school, we recommend that their attention be now directed to objects and qualities more difficult to comprehend.  They should be taught to perceive and understand more minute peculiarities and nicer distinctions, to learn to describe them correctly, to account for their origin and estimate their uses. [14]  Their attention should also be directed to the external world, with all its natural and artificial variety; in nature they should be gradually taught to understand the habits, peculiarities, and uses of such animals as they saw, as well as to distinguish the properties of trees and common plants, the qualities of earths, rocks, and minerals, and eventually to distinguish class, genera, order, and species.

    In the artificial world they should be shown the various descriptions of tools and instruments of labour, and have their uses explained to them; and such kinds of machinery, manual and scientific operations, as they could have access to.  In short, their attention should be directed, their inquiries elicited, and their minds informed regarding every object which meets their eyes, or which could be brought within the sphere of their observation.

    In order to instruct them still further in the use and meaning of words, as well as the spelling and composing them, THE LETTER CASE should be introduced, and used in a similar manner as in the infant school.  Only in proportion as the children advance from one class to another, they should describe the objects presented to them more at length, and correctly compose the different words as they describe them.  After which the class-teacher should turn the letter-case towards him, and request them alternately to spell the different words composed, and eventually some of them to read the whole composition.  While these lessons are proceeding with, the teacher and assistant should see that the different objects are properly described and spelt, that the children pronounce the different words correctly and distinctly, that they read with proper emphasis, and understand the meaning of each word they use.

    A great portion of English grammar may also be taught through the medium of those compositions, by the teacher instructing the children in the names, uses, and qualities of the different words as they occur.  And if the most simple rules in grammar be printed in a large type, hung up against the walls, and referred to, to guide or correct them whenever it may be necessary, it will be found that they will be far better understood by such practice, than if they were learned by rote, without any practical means of application.  The teacher and his assistant should also direct their particular attention to the conversation of the children in the play-ground, and see that they express themselves grammatically, for correct speaking cannot be learned but by continued practice.

    We now come to the writing department, and here we must suppose that the children have been taught the forms and proportions of letters in the writing-alphabet in the infant school; if not, they should be taught in classes by the means of diagram-boards placed before them, on which the letters should be drawn, and which the children should copy on their slates.  The teacher should direct their attention to the peculiar forms and proportions of the letters, and the easiest method of copying them.  As soon as they have acquired some skill in making the letters, they should be taught to write down the names of objects on their slates, and a number of objects which are easily spelt should be given to each class for that purpose.  After they have had some practice with one set of objects, another should be given them; and eventually they should begin to describe at length their qualities, uses, &c. [15]

    The children should be taught a small hand: large hand should never be attempted till they have acquired great freedom in the use of the pen.  The absurd practice of ruling lines for children should be dispensed with, as it begets a pernicious habit, which makes it difficult for adults so accustomed, to write straight without lines.

    The eye must be practised from infancy to direct them to write straightly and evenly, without lines; and though they will write irregularly at first, the advantages will be soon obvious to the teacher.

    As they will have to write on slates till they have acquired some proficiency, their pencil should be fixed in a tin case, so as to make it the requisite length (about six inches), which they should be taught to hold as they would a pen.  And in order that it may be always at hand, they should have a small groove made on the top of their slate-frame, of the length required, with a bit of leather over it, in which to keep their pencil.

    Nor must the teacher forget to instruct his pupils in the proper position of sitting to write, as well as in the correct movements of the hand, arm, and fingers, which are essential for writing with elegance and expedition.

    The pupil should sit in an upright position near the table, with the left side near, but not pressing it, and with the whole weight of the body supported by the left arm.  The body should be bent a little forward, with the right arm resting on the table three or four inches from the body.  The slate (or paper when used) should be placed directly in front of the right arm, and parallel with the edge of the table.  The pencil (or pen) should be gently held between the thumb and first and second fingers, with the top of it always pointing to the right shoulder.  Little children should keep the second finger nearly half an inch from the point of the pen, and persons of ten years old and upwards about an inch.  The fleshy part of the fore arm should rest on the table, so as to give the wrist full play; the hand may be supported on the ends of the third and fourth fingers inclined towards the palm of the hand.

    In writing, the letters are executed by three general movements and their combinations.

    The first movement is that of the whole arm in all directions.  To acquire this movement with freedom, the learner should practise exercises in perpendicular columns, where letters or syllables are connected from the top to the bottom by means of loops, which should be executed without taking the pencil from the slate.  The movement of the fingers may be combined with the arm in these exercises, but the wrist should never touch the table.

    The second movement is the forward, backward, and oblique play of the fore arm, while the arm rests lightly on or near the elbow.  The great object in this movement is to discipline the muscles of the fore arm, so necessary to expert and exact penmanship.  The learner should, therefore, begin by making ovals either horizontally or obliquely, continuing the pencil on the slate, and going round repeatedly on the same outline as quickly as possible.  When the oval can be made with neatness and precision, he should try to make letters and short words, but without lifting the pencil; and the movement of the under fingers must be such that, if another pencil were fixed to them, they would produce the same word at the same time.  In writing current hand by this movement, the learner must slide his arm laterally along the table at convenient distances, so that his hand and elbow be always in a line where the word is to be written, and parallel with the sides of the slate (or paper).  The movement of the thumb and fingers is generally combined with this movement in all sizes of writing, in free running hand, and in all quick writing.

    The third movement is that of the thumb and finders alone.  Exercises proper to acquire this movement are all common sized large hand, formal small hand, and all studied writing where great exactness is required in the forms of the letters.

    As a general rule, the pupil should first be taught the use of the arm and fore arm, and till much facility is gained in using them, the use of the fingers in current hand writing should be postponed; and even when the fingers are allowed, they should not be suffered to execute the whole writing, but only the upward and downward strokes of the letters, while the connecting hair lines are formed by the lateral movement of the arm or fore arm.  He should never be permitted to lean on his wrist when writing, nor should his pencil be taken off the slate in the middle of a word. [16]

    By attention to these rules the pupil will be easily taught to write a straight, even, and masterly hand, instead of the stiff, formal, and crooked style so common to those who have been taught by the ordinary methods.

    When they can write tolerably well on their slates, they should be provided with writing-books, into which they should copy their compositions on objects, as well as descriptions of such places, scenes, or occurrences as they may have witnessed in their walks with the teacher.  It should also be his duty to point out to them particular objects for this purpose, and to question them at the time as regards their several features or peculiarities, in order to call forth the descriptive powers of the children,―they should write the matter down first on their slates, and, when approved of, into their copy-books.  We give the following specimens illustrative of our meaning:―


    "Last Saturday afternoon our teacher took us to Mr. Carefull's farm, and showed us the tools and implements used in farming.  We saw spades, picks, hoes, rakes, pitchforks, scythes, sickles, sieves, and a great variety of other tools, the names of which I have forgotten.  We were shown how they used several of them, and had the uses of most of them explained to us.  We were then taken to the barn, stable, cowhouse, sheepfold, piggery, poultry-yard, and other places about the farm.  We then went out to the fields, and saw the farmer and his men ploughing and harrowing the ground, and sowing wheat.  When the teacher informed us of the nature and uses of all those things, I thought that farming was the most useful of all occupations.
    "Oct. 24th, 1839.                                                  "R
ICHARD JONES."

    "The last time I was out with my class we were taken to a blacksmith's shop, where we saw the manner of working in iron and steel.  They had a large fire kept up to a great heat by means of an immense pair of bellows; in which fire they heated the iron, in order to soften it.  We saw them make several tools and other articles while we were there.  They put the pieces of iron the articles were made with into the fire, and when they were made hot, they took them out with a large pair of tongs, and hammered them into the forms they wanted them, on a large block of iron called an anvil; they were then filed up very smoothly, and when finished were polished.
    "Sept. 11th, 1839."                                              "J
OHN TURNER."

    "On Wednesday the 25th of July, 1840, being on the top of Beech Hill, my attention was directed to Widow Neat's cottage, which is pleasantly situated on a rising slope at the foot of the hill.  It is but a small and homely built place, yet the taste and industry of Joseph, the widow's only son, have rendered it a little home of beauty.  The rough appearance of the walls is concealed by a luxuriant vine in front, by a flowering clematis at one end, and a fine peach tree at the other.  The garden in front of the cottage is laid out with great neatness, the gravel walks are kept dry and clean, the different beds are edged with box, and I think a more choice collection of blooming flowers and odorous plants are seldom found in so small a spot.  There is a small orchard at the back of the cottage well stocked with apple, pear, and plumb trees; and every part of it is kept in great order.  The widow was busily engaged with her needle in a little bower which her son had built for her in one corner of the garden, and her son was industriously employed in the orchard.  I was so struck with the neatness of the cottage, the taste and order of the garden, the cheerfulness of the widow, and industry of the son, that on leaving the place I resolved to profit by what I had witnessed.
                                                                          " W
ILLIAM JOHNSON."


    The children's discrimination and judgment regarding moral qualities may be exercised in a similar manner, by teaching them to describe any act of cruelty or injustice, or of kindness or affection, they may have witnessed in their rambles.  Their first productions will doubtlessly be very crude, but the mode we have described for calling forth their knowing and reasoning powers, will greatly assist them in composition; and when they know that they will have to describe certain objects they see in their walks, they will observe them with greater care and attention than they otherwise would.

    For the purpose of aiding their descriptive and inventive powers, they should also be taught the art of sketching objects, as it will be of great service to them in the respective trades and occupations they may hereafter be engaged in.  To this end, the sketching classes should first be provided with geometrical models, the outlines of which they should be taught to draw by the eye on their slates.  After they have had some practice in drawing these symmetrical objects, they should be provided with different sets of drawing models, for the purpose of sketching their outlines. [17]  When they have acquired some skill in this branch, they should be provided with leaves of trees and plants to sketch, and eventually with the plants; the wild flowers and weeds they may find in their walks will afford them great variety, and be far better for the purpose than those of the garden.  As they progress in the art they should be taught to take sketches of tools, machinery, patterns, buildings, trees, landscapes, &c.  They should also be taught the most simple rules in perspective, and also to shade and tint their productions, and be provided with a drawing-book, and encouraged to practise their lessons at home.  As accessory to this art, they should be taught to construct the various kinds of angles, ovals, and different-sided figures in geometry, but in all instances familiar applications of them should be brought home to their understanding.

    If the children have been trained in the infant school, they will have learned the elements of numbers by means of tangible objects, and they should now be instructed in the use and application of the four fundamental rules of arithmetic, simple and compound.  And as many children are unfortunately taken away from school before they are nine years of age (the time for admitting them into the high school), it would be well to teach them in the preparatory school the best and simplest mode of keeping accounts.  Among the multiplicity of plans proposed for teaching children a knowledge of arithmetic, the Pestalozzian and the Lancasterian seem to be most generally preferred.  The following are brief specimens of each of their plans:―



T
HE PESTALOZZIAN METHOD.


    "The children are taught the elements of numbers by objects, such as beans, pebbles, small squares of wood, or any other objects at hand. [18]  They first begin by learning to count the objects presented to them.  When they are familiar with this, they begin with addition, thus: one and one are two, two and one are three, three and two are five, &c., at the same time having objects before them to prove it.  They then proceed to subtraction, thus: one from five, and four remains; three from nine, and six remains; eight from twenty, and twelve remains, &c.  Then to multiplication, thus: two twos, make four, three fours make twelve, nine threes make twenty-seven, &c.  Then to division, thus: there are three fours in twelve, six threes in eighteen, five eights in forty, nine fives in forty-five, &c.  The child is then exercised by means of objects and writing down strokes on his slate, as follows: in six twos how many tens and ones? in two fives how many tens? in four threes how many tens and ones? in nine threes how many tens and ones? &c.  He is then taught the elements of fractions by means of small squares of wood, marked on the surface into different squares; and by them the child is made to perceive that two is the third of six, three the third of nine, five the fourth of twenty, &c.  He is then taught by objects the different powers of numbers, as thus: the powers of two are four, eight, sixteen, thirty-four, &c.; the powers of three are nine, twenty-seven, eighty-one, &c.  He is thus examined as to proportions: in three fours how many ones, twos, threes, and fours are there? in four ours how many ones, twos, fours, eights and sixteens are there? &c.  After they are well exercised in this manner by means of objects, they are exercised in mental arithmetic; that is, they are exercised without the aid of objects.  And in order to acquire this kind of knowledge, the same or similar lessons are repeated without objects."



THE LANCASTERIAN METHOD.


    "The first class in arithmetic is taught as follows:—The monitor reads from a table, which he is provided with, thus: 9 and 1 are 10, 9 and 2 are 11, &c.; 25 and 1 are 26, 25 and 2 are 27, &c.;—and as he reads, each child writes it down on his slate.  Other tables are then used for subtraction, as thus: take 9 from 10, and 1 remains; 8 from 12, and 4 remains.  The multiplication and pence tables are taught by the same method.  The mode of examining them regarding what they have learned is as follows.  These tables, without the totals to them, are suspended against the walls, and the children are arranged in a semi-circle before them.  Supposing it to be an addition table, the monit6r asks the child at the head of the circle how many are 9 and 4;—if he cannot answer him, he asks another child; and so on, till he meets with one who can answer him; and he who answers the question takes precedent and the badge of merit from the child who is unable to answer it.  And so the monitors proceed to question them regarding subtraction, multiplication, &c.  The next step is to teach them sums in the different rules.  The monitor, being provided with a written book of sums, begins with addition in the following manner.  He reads aloud the first row of figures in the sum, which the children write down on their slates as he reads them; and so he proceeds with the other rows, taking care to inspect the children's slates as he proceeds, to see if they have written them down correctly.  He then reads from his book the mode of counting up the sum, thus: 7 and 9 are 16, and 3 are 19, and 5 are 24; set down 4 under the 7, and carry 2 to the next.  This is also written down by each class as he proceeds.  Compound addition is proceeded with in the same manner, as also are all the other simple and compound rules, every rule being a study for a separate class.  The mode of examining them regarding what they have learned in these rules is similar to the method above stated.  In whatever rule they are in, a sum in that rule is written on a diagram before them, and the children are called on in rotation to work it before their class.  Supposing the sum to be in addition, the first boy proceeds to add up aloud the first row; if he fails, the next is called on, &c."


A portion of geography should also be taught in this school, not by rote, but, as far as possible, by models, maps, and illustrations. The first essential is to give the children clear ideas of the general form and surface of the globe, which, we think, may be brought home to their understandings by the following methods: A model of the globe should be prepared, having the portions representing the sea sunk, and those that represent the earth elevated and made rough, and both coloured so as to represent land and water. In conjunction with this they should be shown a relief map of the county they live in, [19] by which they should be taught to perceive that the rough places on the model are mountains, hills, and valleys, intersected with rivers, lakes, and streams. They should then be taken to the top of some eminence, and shown the surface of the surrounding country, and should be taught to refer to the relief map for the elevations and depressions before them, and to the model of the globe for the roughness they perceived on its surface. Having given them clear ideas of the general form of the earth, they should then be taught to understand its most prominent particulars. A continent, island, peninsula, cape, and isthmus, may be illustrated by a small model, in which water may be introduced to represent seas, lakes, gulphs, rivers, &c.; and which, in conjunction with the terrestrial globe, will serve to convey clear ideas. They should then be taught to draw the general outline of their own country, with its principal rivers, canals, roads, towns, and cities, and to know the staple trade and manufactures carried on at the different places. When thus made acquainted with the geography of their own country, they should proceed in a similar manner with the whole of the United Kingdom.

If they are presented with proper specimens and drawings, and have some attention shown to them in their different composition classes, they will acquire much information in natural history, chemistry, mineralogy, and geology; and in their walks with their teacher, as well as in the garden, they may very easily be taught the elements of botany. The teacher should also devote some portion of time, twice or thrice in the week, for the purpose of giving the whole school short lectures or explanations on such subjects as cannot well be conveyed through the means of the different classes, such as the structure and functions of the human body—of the brain, and its functions—the best means of preserving health—the nature of government, laws, rights, and obligations—the production and distribution of wealth—as well as some information and experiments in chemical and mechanical science. But the whole should be conveyed in the most simple and familiar language, and illustrated and explained by such apt comparisons, models, pictures, diagrams, and other means, as a skilful teacher will easily invent and know how to employ.

As a great number of children, either from timidity or the want of a clear perception of the meaning of a passage, fail to read with proper emphasis and effect, we recommend the following mode of practising them in the art of reading. A well written and forcible piece should be selected, either in prose or verse, and the teacher should read it aloud, in conjunction with two or three classes at once, taking care that each child reads it, word for word, in the same tone and emphasis as the teacher does. By reading all together in this manner, the least variation in tone or emphasis will be easily detected; and by singling out those who vary from the rest, and drawing their attention to their own faults and the way to avoid them, they will in a short time catch the tone and spirit of the rest, and consequently acquire the teacher's mode and manner of reading.

For the purpose of giving them a taste for reading, and the power of understanding what they read, it will be advisable that lesson cards be laid before them at stated times, on which some interesting objects should be described or facts narrated, and, after giving them a short time to read and think, examine them alternately as to the meaning of what they have read. [20] It will be unnecessary to question them individually; for as they will not know who will be examined, they will all prepare themselves, and consequently all profit by their reading.

In addition to the various kinds of knowledge we have referred to as necessary to be taught to both sexes in the preparatory school, it should be the duty of the assistant to teach the girls to knit and sew, to mend and make different kinds of garments, and to impart to them some information on domestic economy.

Kindness and reason should always be employed to urge them to their duties, coercion and anger never.

Knowledge should never be made irksome by tasks and compulsion, but rendered pleasant by means of the clear-headed and light-hearted disposition of the teacher.


 
THE HIGH SCHOOL.


By the time the pupil has gone through the six years' discipline of the other schools, and arrived at an age to be admitted into the high school, he will not only have acquired much useful information, but will have made great progress in the art of imparting it to others; which is one of the great essentials of education. If proper attention has been shown him, he will possess sound discriminating and reflective powers—the best guides to knowledge and wisdom; and having been trained in the practice as well as the knowledge of morality, he will be inclined to pursue truth, justice, and benevolence for their own intrinsic excellence, and conscience giving reward. His memory, instead of being filled with the words and sayings of others, will be stored with a knowledge of things, qualities, facts, events, and conclusions which he has tested by the evidence of his senses, and made his own by his reasoning and experience. His attainments, though as yet little more then elementary, will be varied and extensive, compared with those which are usually possessed by children of his age; and will have been acquired under circumstances of pleasure and amusement, compared with the usual scholastic system. If he has been properly taught, he will have clear ideas of the form and surface of the globe he lives on—will know something of its structure, materials, and inhabitants—as well as the principles and means by which its materials are rendered subservient to the purposes of man. He will have some knowledge of his own nature, bodily and mentally, as also of his rights and duties, his moral and social relations. He will also be familiarised with many important facts and experiments in science—will have clear ideas of numbers and computation—will have made some progress in drawing, and will be able to describe, in a fair hand, and in tolerably correct language, the ideas he has received.

The object of the high school is for the still higher development of his moral faculties,—to extend his knowledge of arithmetic, geometry, geography, drawing, and composition,—to make him still further acquainted with nature and her laws—with the resources, institutions, and arts of life—with the history of his own species—and to cultivate, as far as possible, his powers of communicating knowledge.

In teaching arithmetic and mental calculation, the clearest and shortest system should be adopted. We have already referred to that of Mr. Wood; the next which appears to us to possess great merits, is Messrs Willcolkes and Fryer's system; the following two or three examples will convey a slight, though a very imperfect idea of their work. [21]

What will 36lbs. cost, at 11d. per pound?

 

£   s   d

 

36 at 1d is equal to

0   3   0

 

Multiplied by

          11

 

 

£1  13  0

  Ans.


What will 71 gallons cost, at 11s. per gallon?
 

 

  £  s   d

 

71 at 1s. is equal to

3  11  0

 

Multiplied by

          11

 

 

£39   1  0

Ans.


What will 80 yards cost, at 4s. 3d. per yard?

 

£  s   d

 

80 at 1s. is equal to

4   0   0

 

Multiplied by

          4¼

 

 

£17   0   0

Ans.


3d. being the 1/4 of a 1s., the 1/4 of £4 is added.

    Whenever a practical method or application of any rule in arithmetic can be shown, the teacher should always avail himself of that mode of instructing the children; and the same may be said of mensuration, geometry, and trigonometry, which should be taught by the most approved methods, in the last year of their schooling.  Their knowledge of perspective should be extended, and their practice of drawing continued in this school; and especially in the art of drawing tools, implements, machinery, plans, &c.  They should also be further instructed in the geography of the United Kingdom, and eventually in that of the whole world.

    The system of reading from cards should be continued in the lower classes, but the lessons should treat of higher subjects, such as the various phenomena of nature, the properties of different kinds of matter, the structure and functions of the body, the nature of laws, government, &c.  And in the higher classes they should commence with history, beginning with that of their own country; and when they are well informed in that, they should proceed to the history of other countries. [22]  We think that the mode of reading and examining them in classes, as suggested in the PREPARATORY SCHOOL, will be found the best.  It will be advisable for the teacher to examine them as to the meaning of any particular word in their lessons; each class should be provided with dictionaries to refer to, and to prepare themselves to understand the meaning of what they read. [23]

    To practise them in writing and composition, the system of describing the objects, scenes, and events, they may observe in their walks with the teacher should be continued, and in the school-room, such as the teacher may present to them for that purpose.  They should also be instructed as regards force, clearness, and beauty of style, in their compositions; and the higher branches of English grammar [24].

    If, as we have suggested, they have been taught from infancy to describe the nature and qualities of such things as have been presented to their senses, they will have acquired a great facility of expression, and have much valuable information to impart.  The next great object to be achieved, in order to render them useful in proportion to their knowledge, is to practise them in the art of expressing themselves correctly and coherently.  Most persons possess powers of language which, if properly cultivated, would greatly extend their usefulness in society.  We therefore suggest the following method for cultivating the art of oral expression:—The children being classified according to their ages or capacities, one in each class should be selected every day, to give an explanation of some object, or to deliver a short lecture on some subject which the teacher may select for him, before the members of his own class.  Every pupil called upon to lecture, should have a day to prepare himself, and should select the subject he is best acquainted with.  Suppose he is called upon to explain the nature and use of copper, he will proceed to describe its nature in the ore, and in its pure state—its peculiarities, properties, and all he knows respecting its uses; and at the same time exhibit to them such specimens as the museum or laboratory will afford.  After he has concluded, in order to test their knowledge, the members of the class should be encouraged to question him respecting any point in his discourse.  The higher classes might be called upon to give a short account of some matter in history or science, or other subject they may be acquainted with.  Their first attempts will doubtlessly be weak and disjointed, but as they proceed they will acquire confidence and facility, and at the same time will be acquiring a great deal of valuable knowledge.  Having a day to prepare themselves, they will be able to collect their information and arrange their ideas; and as they will be subject to the examination of their class, under the encouraging eye of the teacher, they will strive to excel both in the delivery and knowledge of their subject.

    For the purpose of instructing the higher classes still further in chemical or mechanical science, the teacher would do well to devote a portion of time, one or two evenings in the week, for giving lessons and performing such experiments in the laboratory as would not be healthy nor convenient to perform in the school-room in his ordinary lectures. [25]  And some of the most skilful members of the association might be employed of an evening to instruct the biggest boys in the use and management of tools in the workshop.

    The children should also be encouraged by their parents, at home, to make collections of books, drawings, prints, minerals, plants, or anything of an instructive or amusing character; as such pursuits will call forth habits of frugality, taste, order, and refinement, which all the precepts in the universe may fail to effect.

    In the industrial and agricultural schools a similar system of education should be adopted for the orphan children of the association, excepting that in the AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL a portion of their time should be devoted to the cultivating of the farm, and in the INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL to such manufactures or occupations as may be combined with it.  We think that they should continue in these schools till the age of twelve or fourteen, and then that suitable masters should be provided for them.

    Such is the general mode of education we would suggest for training up the rising generation in knowledge, morality, and the love of freedom.

______________


    In describing the numerous advantages likely to result from forming an association upon the plan suggested, we have deemed it a portion of our duty thus to direct the attention of our working-class brethren, in particular, to the great importance and necessity of education.  But in putting forth our views on this branch of the subject in a plain and, as we conceive, a practical form, we do not imagine we have given birth to any new plans or originality of method.  Seriously impressed with the evil to be apprehended from any state-moulding system of instruction, conducted by and for the interest of party,—and, moreover, perceiving the great and beneficial advantages likely to result from a just system of education, under the control of the whole people, we have been influenced to devise and promulgate what we conceive to be a means by which the evil may be avoided and the good gradually achieved.  Being in a prison, we have found some difficulty in proceeding as far as we have, for the want of such books and facilities as our liberty would have enabled us to obtain; but, in all probability, if we were in the enjoyment of that inestimable blessing, the pressing demands of our families, and the active pursuits of life, would have so far engaged our attention, as to have prevented us from ever writing anything on the subject.  In what we have written we may not have expressed ourselves as correctly and guardedly as the subject merits, but we trust that the liberality of our countrymen will lead them to excuse these defects in persons who have not had the advantages of a literary education, but who are nevertheless desirous of arresting the attention of working men who, like themselves, are desirous of obtaining better governors, wiser measures, and happier times than the present.

    As some legal difficulties may be started in objection to the plan proposed, it may be well to anticipate them, and to give our opinions on the subject.  In the first place, the existing laws are opposed to the formation of any association which is composed of separate branches, each branch having distinct officers, and corresponding with each other. But the members of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, in whatever part of the country they might reside, would form but one general association, having one general fund, and governed by one general set of officers.  Though the GENERAL BOARD is proposed to be elected in different counties, on account of the difficulties that exist of calling any general meeting to elect them, they being elected by members of one association, and being appointed to conduct that one association only, would be perfectly a legal body.  The subsequent appointment of superintendents, to manage the district halls when erected, being of an educational character, would not be any more amenable to law than are the arrangements of the British and Foreign School Societies.  So far we have deemed it necessary to explain our conceptions of the infamous and atrocious laws of Pitt, Castlereagh, and Sidmouth.  But, taking into account the important objects contemplated by this plan, that of uniting and inducing the people to erect halls in different parts of the country, for the purpose of instructing themselves and their children to become wiser and better members of the community, any government who would presume to bring forward any tyrannical or obsolete statute to prevent or crush such a righteous measure, would bring down upon them the just indignation of every reflecting mind in the country to scare them from their unholy purpose.  But such attempts we neither apprehend nor fear—the object is just, the cause is worthy of sacrifice; and whenever our brethren are disposed to unite hand and heart to endeavour to carry this or any other better plan into practice, we shall be found among their number.

――――♦――――

 
SPECIMENS OF LESSON CARDS.

ON TRUTH.


A truly intellectual man is distinguished by his earnest desire to know the truth of every proposition and opinion presented to his notice; and a truly moral man, by his resolves to pursue it at all risks, and to practise its dictates regardless of all consequences.

    By such united efforts of intellect and moral principle has the progress of society been effected—have despotic cruelty, fanatic zeal, and superstitious frenzy been moderated; and by the continuation of such potent efforts will truth and justice eventually prevail over error and wrong.

    Unhappily, however, truth is slow in its progress; the cause of which is to be traced to the idleness, vanity, bigotry, and interest which prevent the generality of mankind from examining the opinions they entertain, as by such culpable neglect old errors are fostered, and new vices transmitted to posterity.

    The opinions of men influence their actions; and while such as are founded on truth are generally the precursors of good and virtuous actions, opinions which are founded on error are mostly the parents of evil.  The man, therefore, who honestly investigates the opinions he holds, discharges a great moral duty to society; while he who receives without examination and believes without inquiry, is guilty of a moral offence.

    But if to hold opinions ourselves, without investigating the evidence on which they rest, be so far immoral, how much more so is it to instil such opinions into others—which, whether true or false, beneficial or mischievous, we have never taken the trouble to inquire!

    And yet this is not only daily done among every class and grade of society, but we too often see the influence of persecution and the rod of power brought in to enforce their unexamined crudities and presumptuous zeal.

    Had such persons been accustomed to examine their own opinions, they would not fail to perceive that the evidence of truth is irresistible, and that reason is far more efficient than persecution to carry conviction to the mind.

    In order to arrive at the truth of any opinions we entertain, two essentials are necessary: one is to "be industrious in collecting all the evidence we can obtain on which our opinions rest;" and the other, to "examine it carefully, when collected, without being influenced by interest, party, or prejudice, to incline to the one side more than to the other."

    When a man bestows such pains to arrive at truth, he will find his opinions will stand the test of investigation, his intellect will be strengthened, his moral principle invigorated, his means of usefulness increased, and his sympathies extended towards the whole human family.


 
GEOLOGY.


    Whenever we dig through the vegetable or surface soil which covers our globe, we come to other substances; such as clay, sand, pebbles, chalk, and rocks of different descriptions.

    The science of geology teaches us that these substances are not promiscuously blended together to form the globe, but are arranged in layers, one above another, all around it, like the different coatings which form an onion, though it seldom happens that they are found so regularly disposed.

    For though they appear to have been originally deposited in regular horizontal layers, (or strata, as they are called by geologists,) the volcanoes, earthquakes, and other convulsions of nature, have since greatly changed their position.

    In some places we find these strata so pushed outward as to form hills, at other places so sunk inward as to form valleys, at others so lifted up and broken that their ends are seen on the surface; and sometimes the lava, or melted rocks from the volcanoes, has been forced up through the different strata, so as to form the highest mountains above them.

    These strata are composed of different substances; some of sand, as the sandstone; some of trees and vegetables, as the coal; and some of shells and other marine productions, as the limestone;—these seem to have been gradually deposited in the bottom of the seas and lakes which formerly covered the earth, and in the lapse of ages have either been converted into stone, or into the substances as we now find them.

    The proofs that they are so composed, and have been so deposited, are numerous; for instance, some of the highest hills are found to be composed of different strata of rocks, in which the remains of fishes, shells, corals, and other marine productions are embedded, which must have been deposited there when the substance which forms the rocks was in a muddy, granular, or fluid state.

    If these animal remains, instead of being gradually deposited by the sea, had been washed there by it, we should find them deposited against the sides of the hills; and should also find the heaviest materials at the bottom, in a confused and mixed state;—instead of which, we find them in layers running through the body of the hill, and some of the angles of the shells are as well preserved as if they had lived and died on the spot.

    Those rocks which have been deposited in layers, or strata, are called stratified rocks; and those which have been forced up through them in a melted state, are called unstratfied rocks, such as granite, whinstone, and basalt.

    The stratified rocks are very numerous, and are divided by geologists into three great divisions, called the transition, secondary, and tertiary formations.

    On examining the animal or vegetable remains (or fossils, as they are called) contained in these different rocks, they find additional proofs for believing that what is now land was once seas and lakes, and that great changes of climate must have taken place on the surface of the globe.

    It is also found that race after race of animals has existed and disappeared from the earth, some of them of gigantic and wonderful forms.  The remains of some that have been found show that they must have been nearly a hundred feet long, and some so large that the socket of the eye measures fourteen inches and half in its diameter.

    But among all these fossil remains, those of human beings are not found, proving that hundreds of thousands of years must have elapsed, and the earth been occupied with one race of animals after another, before man made his appearance on the surface of the globe.


 
MINERALOGY, &c.


    The science of mineralogy teaches the nature and peculiarities of rocks, stones, and metals, though it is sometimes divided into lithology, or the study of earths and stones, and metallurgy, or the study of mineral substances.

    The metals are the heaviest bodies in nature.  They melt, and for the most part acquire lustre, by the action of fire: those that are malleable, or will spread out under the hammer—and ductile, or will bear to be drawn into wire, are the most valuable.  There are forty-two different kinds of them, the most useful of which are gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, zinc, mercury, bismuth, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and antimony.

    Gold, silver, and copper, are occasionally found in a pure state, but are more generally found blended with other substances, as are all the other metals.  When any metal is found pure, it is said to be in its native state, as "native gold or silver;" but otherwise it is called ore, as "copper or iron ore."

    The metals are generally found in the oldest rocks, such as the primary formations; in which are also found the gems, or precious stones, such as the diamond, ruby, garnet, topaz, emerald, amethyst, &c.

    The metallic ores are found embedded in fissures, or cracks of the rocks, called lodes; they vary in length from a few yards to several hundreds, and in width from a few inches to several feet, and sometimes they run to an immense depth;—there is seldom, however, more than one kind of metal in each lode.

    There are great difficulties in getting the ore out of these lodes;—first, on account of the hardness of the rock; and second, on account of the springs of water which are mostly found in it.

    To get rid of the water, they sink a very deep well, or shaft, into which the water is drained, and pumped up by means of the steam-engine.

    They force their way down through the rock by boring it, and blowing it up with gunpowder, the force of which shivers the rock for some distance, which they then break through by means of their picks, large hammers, and iron wedges.  They not only proceed downwards in this manner through the lode, but they work their way through it horizontally.  The upright pits are called shafts, and the horizontal cavities adits.

    The ore which they find is broken into small pieces, and drawn up in large iron buckets, by means of machinery; after which it goes through different processes, called dressing, and eventually is sent to smelting furnaces, to be purified by fire.

    Those shafts and arrangements for getting the ore are called mines; the persons employed in the works are called miners; and the operation is called mining.


 
THE STOMACH. [26]


    When the food is masticated, or chewed, it passes into the stomach, to undergo a process called digestion.

    The stomach is an oval-shaped, muscular bag, with an opening at each end; the one called the cardiac orifice, where the food enters—and the other, the pylorus, by which the food passes into the body when digested.

    It is formed of two strong layers, or fibrous membranes, one above another, and is lined with what is called the mucous coat. [27]

    In the outside membrane the fibres run lengthway of the stomach, and in the middle one they run round it, so that, when they contract, they give to the stomach a worm-like motion, by which the food is kept in agitation till it is digested.

    The lining of the stomach has a velvety appearance, of a pale pink colour; it is gathered up into folds, and wrinkled so as to grasp the food; and, when in a healthy state, is continually secreting a mucous fluid, to soften and keep it in order.

    The stomach is also covered with a great number of blood-vessels and nerves, which pass through it in all directions.

    In the lining of the stomach there are also a vast number of very minute vessels, which secrete the gastric, or stomach juice; which is a transparent fluid, of such a digestible, or solvent nature, as readily to convert all kinds of solid food into chyme. [28]  The sensation of hunger is occasioned by these vessels becoming over filled.  When there is no food in the stomach, it is collapsed and inactive; but as soon as food enters it, it begins at once to be excited, the blood rushes towards it with great force, the gastric vessels begin to secrete their juice, which mixes with the food in eating, and the muscles of the stomach set it in active motion till digestion is completed.  When water or ardent spirits are taken into the stomach, they are not digested, but are immediately absorbed by the innumerable small vessels which everywhere cover its surface.

    There is only a limited quantity of gastric juice secreted—more or less, according to the health of the individual; and if more food is taken than there is juice to mix with, it will lie in the stomach undigested, till nature recruits her powers to supply more.

    The stomachs of adults will contain about three pints.


 
THE INTESTINES, LIVER, PANCREAS,
AND OTHER DIGESTIVE ORGANS.


    When the food is digested in the stomach, and converted into chyme, it has to go through other changes, before it enters the blood, and gives nourishment to the body.

    As soon as it passes out of the stomach, in the state of chyme, it enters the upper end of the intestines, or bowels, which is called the duodenum, from its length being the breadth of twelve fingers.

    When in the duodenum, it undergoes a kind of second digestion, by the movements of that organ, and by being intimately mixed up with the bile, pancreatic juice, and a juice secreted by the duodenum itself; by which process it is converted into two substances—one a white fluid, called chyle, and the other a yellow pulp, which finally becomes excrement.

    The bile is a bitter, greenish fluid, secreted by a large gland, called the liver, which weighs about four pounds.  It is from the venous blood passing through ramifications of the liver, that the bile is secreted, and, when secreted, is contained in the gall-bladder till wanted.

    The pancreatic juice is a peculiar fluid, something in appearance like saliva, and is secreted from an oblong gland, called the pancreas, or sweetbread;—one end of it is attached to the duodenum, and the other to the spleen.

    Whenever there is any chyme in the duodenum, both these glands pour their juices into it, drop by drop, by means of two small pipes, or ducts.

    When the food is thus converted into chyle, it passes into other portions of the intestines; first into the jejunum, and then into the ilium.

    The intestines have three coatings, similar to the stomach, and, when active, the same worm-like motion. They have also, like it, their veins, arteries, nerves, and mucous ducts; and, in addition to these, are provided with a vast number of minute absorbent vessels, called lacteals.

    These lacteals absorb the chyle in its progress through the before-named portions of the intestines, having their mouths, or openings, within the intestines, and being connected with vessels on their surface.

    After its absorption by the lacteals, it is conveyed to the mesenteric glands, then into the receptacle of the chyle, then to the lymphatic vessels, and then into the thoracic duct, by which it is conveyed up through the body, and into the jugular vein.

    The intestines are about four times the length of the body; a portion of them are disposed in folds, and attached to the spine by a membrane called the mesentry; different portions of them are distinguished by different names, such as the duodenum, the jejunum, the ilium, corcum, colon, and rectum.


 
THE BRAIN.


    The brain is a soft, medullary [29] substance, which completely fills the cavity of the skull, and is joined to the spinal chord, or marrow, which runs down the back bone.

    From the forehead to the back of the head there is extended a thin, stiff membrane, in shape like a scythe, which separates the brain for a great depth into two equal parts, called the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

    It is also partially divided into an upper and lower brain;—the upper part, which is by far the largest, is called the cerebrum, or proper brain; and the lower portion, the cerebellum, or little brain.

    It is again divided into the front, back, and middle lobes of the brain; but those divisions are not so distinctly marked.

    The surface of the brain is covered with a variety of winding cords, called convolutions, which vary in size and depth in different persons.

    Adhering to and filling up the space between those convolutions, there is a membrane of a finer texture, filled with blood-vessels, called the pia-mater; and, between these, another very thin covering, called the arachnoid [30] membrane.

    Proceeding from the bottom of the brain are various nerves of sensation and motion; some going to the organs of sense, and others to the skin and muscles of the head and face;—the nerves which supply the body and the extremities chiefly proceed from the spinal chord.

    The brain is the seat of our thoughts, feelings, and consciousness; and any injury done to it, either by disease or a blow very soon affects the mental powers.

    The intellectual powers are said to be situated in the front, the moral faculties in the middle, and the animal feelings in the back lobes of the brain;—and in proportion as they are properly exercised will they increase in bulk and power; but if not, they will shrink, and lose their efficiency.

    In infancy the brain grows more rapidly than any other organ, but all its parts are not properly formed till about the age of seven years.

    The brain of an infant weighs about ten ounces; of an adult, about three pounds and half; and, in some instances, when persons have studied very much, from four to four pounds and half;—the brain of Cuvier weighed fours pounds thirteen ounces and half.


 
THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD.


    The blood is the great nourishing and sustaining principle of life;—as soon as it becomes impure, it generates disease; and as soon as it ceases to flow through the heart, life becomes extinct.

    The whole mass of blood in an adult person is about twenty-eight pounds, which is forced, by means of the heart, through every portion of the body in about every two minutes and half; so that about seven hundred pounds of blood pass through the heart every hour.

    The heart is a strong, elastic muscle, the inside of which is divided into four compartments; the upper are called the right and left auricles, and the lower, the right and left ventricles.

    The auricles and ventricles contract alternately four thousand times every hour, and at every contraction propel two ounces of blood through the different parts of the body.

    The blood is circulated to and from every part of the body by means of two distinct sets of blood vessels, all connected with the heart;—the one set called arteries, because they convey the bright arterial or pure blood; and the other called veins, because they convey the venous or impure dark blood.

    The great artery through which the pure blood is conveyed is called the aorta, and in its course from the heart it sends out different branches, like a tree; those branches send out still smaller ones, till at last they become so numerous and minute, that you cannot prick the body anywhere with a pin, but you will chance to puncture some of them.

    This pure blood is continually nourishing the body and repairing the waste that is going on in different parts of it; and, what is surpassingly wonderful, the same material builds up and repairs muscle, bone, fat, tendon, brain, and every different substance of the human frame.

    But in this circulating and repairing it loses its healthly qualities, changes its colour, and becomes dark, or what is called venous blood; and in order to purify it again, pure air is essential, and the lungs are the organs provided, in which it is purified by the action of the air.

    And in order to convey it to the lungs, after it has performed its healthy purposes, the veins are provided, which are branched out all over the body, like the arteries.

    When, therefore, the pure blood becomes venous, it enters the extremest branches of the veins, and from these into larger and larger branches, till at last it empties itself into two large veins, called the superior and interior vena cavas, and by them is emptied into the heart.

    From the heart it is forced into the lungs through the pulmonary arteries; when it is purified in the lungs, it goes back to the heart through four pulmonary veins, and then, by the contraction of the heart, is again forced by the great aorta to the different parts of the body; and so the circulation proceeds.

    The particles of the blood are round and flat, and it is forced by the heart through the body with a force equal to about sixty pounds.


 
THE LUNGS.


    The LUNGS are two light, spongy bodies, situated on each side of the chest, which, with the heart, completely fill it; they chiefly consist of small tubes, air cells, blood-vessels, nerves, and membranes.

    The windpipe is the vessel that conveys the air to the lungs; but, previous to entering them, it separates into two branches, one branch entering the right lung, and the other the left.

    These branches of the windpipe spread out, like a tree, into other branches throughout each lung, till at last they terminate in an innumerable number of small cells: the branches of the windpipe are called bronchial tubes, and the cells in which they terminate are called air vesicles.

    These air vesicles of the lungs are so constructed that the blood shall be spread out to be purified over the greatest amount of surface; and unitedly they furnish a surface of twenty thousand square inches.

    The venous or impure blood is forced into the lungs through the pulmonary arteries, and the purified blood is conveyed back to the heart through the pulmonary veins. [31]

    The pulmonary artery, on leaving the heart, separates into two branches, one entering the right, and the other the left lung; each of these branches are spread out into in smaller and smaller branches, till at last they terminate in the air vesicles in a complete network of arteries.

    The instant a person inspires, or draws the air into his lungs, the heart forces out a stream of venous blood (through the pulmonary artery) into the lungs to be purified; and the instant it meets the pure air, it is converted into pure blood by the chemical action of the air.

    The next instant of expiration, or forcing the air out of the lungs, the blood so purified is conveyed back to the heart (through the pulmonary veins); but in coming, back it runs first into the minuest branches, and these empty themselves into branches still larger, till it is finally emptied by the large veins into the heart.

    A person breathes from fourteen to twenty times in a minute; a man draws into his lungs at each inspiration from six to ten pints of air, and a woman from two to four pints.

    The motions of inspiration and expiration are occasioned by the mechanism and action of the thorax (or chest), and the diaphragm, or membrane which separates the chest from the abdomen.

    The air which is breathed out of the lungs is vitiated and impure, as it has imparted its vital properties to the blood, and brings out with it great impurities from the lungs; hence the great evils occasioned to the constitution from breathing in close and badly ventilated rooms.

    The lungs are also great absorbents, and will readily admit into the blood any noxious vapour or effluvia; and hence the ill effects which often arise from breathing the fames of turpentine, tobacco, and the flocoli and vapours of close factories and workshops.


 
RIGHTS.


    Man, in a savage state, thinks it right to pursue his inclinations and indulge his propensities, regardless of the welfare of others; and all ignorant and immoral men think and act in much the same way as the savage.

    But all cultivated and rational men perceive that such selfish and ignorant conduct produces continual violence and dissensions in society, and therefore they condemn it as wrong.

    They find, by experience, that mutual forbearance, sympathy, and kindness, form the strongest bond of union between man and man; and therefore they define right to be reciprocal justice, or such conduct as shall best promote our happiness individually and collectively.

    Though they see this great moral principle of right daily violated among almost every class of men, for want of proper intellectual and moral, training, they feel certain that, as men approach to civilization, will all their laws and institutions be based upon it.

    The rights of individuals may be classed as PERSONAL, SOCIAL, and POLITICAL.

    The PERSONAL RIGHTS of man are, first, his right to share equally in the common patrimony of heaven to all mankind—the earth, air, and the waters, from which all must derive their sustenance; second, his right to personal freedom, no man having a right to enslave him.

    But though these rights clearly belong to every individual, upon our recognised principles of justice, they can only be secured to him by the arrangements of society; for in a state of nature, or in the absence of all law, one man's rightful possessions are violated to day, and become a stronger man's property to morrow.

    The SOCIAL RIGHTS of man, or those which he derives from society, are, first, a right to have his personal or natural rights secured to him—second, a right to have the fruits of his intellectual or bodily labour protected—third, a right to have his person secured as much as possible against the attacks or violence of others—fourth, the right of private judgment in all matters of religion—fifth, a right to be properly educated, in order that lie may understand and share in all the benefits of society.

    But to secure to him these social rights, laws must necessarily be made and executed; and this leads to the establishment of a legislative and executive power, or a political government.

    The POLITICAL RIGHTS of man are, first, a right as a member of society, of having his person and property secured, to determine, in conjunction with his fellow-men, how these laws shall be framed, and by what power they shall be carried into execution—second, to unite with them in investing the government they may appoint with full powers to enforce obedience to the laws, and to obtain from every man his just share of the national expenditure—third, a right to the freedom of speech, the liberty of the press, and of public meeting, so as to influence his brethren in favour of any measure which he conceives to be an improvement in the arrangements of society or the institutions of government.


 
DUTIES.


    Every person who seeks to secure and enjoy his own rights is his bound, on every principle of justice, to assist in securing and affording similar benefits to others;—this constitutes his social and political duties.

    Every person, being immediately or remotely connected with and dependent on the whole human family, should "do unto all men as he would wish them to do unto him;"—this constitutes his moral duty.

    Independent of the reciprocal benefits to be obtained by the observance of these duties, nature has so wisely organized human beings, that, when their moral faculties are properly educated, they can enjoy no higher pleasures than those to be derived from the proper discharge of their duties.

    A great number of distinct and specific duties are comprised under the two general heads referred to—the following are among the most important examples.

    As a member of society, it is a man's duty conscientiously to obey the laws the solemn expression of the public will for promoting peace, order, and security; and to revere all those appointed to administer and enforce them.

    It is also every man's duty to labour bodily and mentally, according to his abilities: seeing that no idle man be supported in society, but by throwing additional labour on others.

    It is the duty of every father of a family to be frugal, temperate, and industrious, so as to be able to provide them with comfortable subsistence, and the means of proper education; and, by his prudent counsel and moral example, teach them to become useful members of society.

    It is every man's duty to deal justly, act honestly, and speak truly, in every condition, state, or calling he may be placed in.

    As every man's life and possessions depend on wise laws and just government, it is every man's duty to make himself acquainted with the social and political institutions of his country; and to make any sacrifice that may be necessary, in his endeavours to purify them from corruption, and to base them upon the principles of justice.

    It is the duty of every man to embrace every possible means for the acquisition of knowledge; and seeing that the want of proper education occasions so much social miserly and political vice, it is his duty to assist in affording the means of proper education to every member of the community.

    Ignorance and selfishness may lead men to neglects these several important duties, but they cannot long remain neglectful of them, without suffering in some way the penalty of such neglect.


――――♦――――

 



NOTES.


7.    For cases of idiocy, lunacy, and mental and bodily weakness, arising from the drunken and dissipated habits of parents, see Mr. Esquirol, Combe, and others, on mental derangement.

8.    While the male teachers should pass through all the schools in rotation, the female teachers might be limited to the infant department of education.

9.    For the most clear and detailed information regarding the structure and functions of human beings, we would refer the reader to "The Philosophy of Health," by Dr. Southwood Smith; to "The Principles of Physiology," by Mr. A. Combe; to "Dr. Hodgkin's Lectures;" Dr. Brigham on the "Influence of Mental Cultivation and Excitement on Health ;" and Mr. G. Combe on the "Constitution of Man."

10.   Since this was written we have read, in Dr. Biber's Life of Pestalozzi, that, he had in his school spelling tablets, in which the letters were made to slide;—how far our suggestion may be similar we are not competent to determine, having never seen the invention of M. Pestalozzi.

11.    The arithmeticon, invented by Mr. Wilderspin, for the purpose of teaching children the elements of numbers, is an oblong, open frame, with twelve wires running across it at equal parallel distances, on each of which wires there are twelve wooden balls strung, making in all one hundred and forty-four.  The balls are the size of a nutmeg, and are painted alternately black and white, which, when used, are passed from left to right, and the children taught to count and understand the numbers.

12.    See a very excellent work by Mr. A. Combe, "On the Management of Infancy," on this particular point.

13.    The trial by jury, as adopted by Mr. Wilderspin, will be found another important means of moral discipline.

14.    The Pestalozzian system of teaching by objects, as set forth in Dr. Mayo's "Object Lessons," would be a great assistance to the teachers.

15.    Small boxes (or cards) of objects should be collected and arranged by the teacher for the different purposes of the school; a great variety may be collected in his walks with the children, and others may be purchased at a trifling cost.

16.    The above method of sitting, holding the pen, and movements of the hand and arm, is taken from an article in the Educational Magazine for 1858, edited by Mr. William Martin.

17.    These can be cheaply obtained; but if some of the girls were taught "the art of modelling in Bristol board," they could make models of this description.

18.    Such as the arithmeticon.

19.    Relief maps, published under the patronage of the Central Society of Education, are sold by Taylor and Walton, 28, Upper Gower Street, London.

20.    See specimens of lesson cards at page 112.

21.    Printed by Henry Motley and Sons, Brook Street, Derby; and sold by Longman and Co., Paternoster Row, London. Price 5s.

22.    See the "History and Resources of the British Empire," the "History of the English Language and Literature," price 2s. each; the "Histories of Greece and Rome," 2s. 6d. each; and a variety of other excellent school-books, published by William and Robert Chambers,  Edinburgh; and sold by W. S. Orr, and Co., London ; and all booksellers.

23.    The "Etymological Dictionary," and "Student's Manual," by R. Harrison Black, LL.D., are works which should be found in every high school.

24.    See "Parker's Progressive Exercises on English Composition."

25.    We would especially recommend to the teacher the mode adopted by Mr. Reed for teaching chemistry, &c., by which the children are instructed to perform all the experiments themselves.

26.    The facts in these physiological lessons are principally derived from "The Philosophy of Health," by Dr. Southwood Smith; from "Physiology" and "Dietetics," by Dr. Combe; and from Dr. A. Brigham, on "Mental Cultivation."

27.    Mucous—the tongue and nostrils are covered with mucous coats.

28.    C
HYME—a soft, pappy-like state.

29.    M
EDULLARY—pertaining to marrow.

30.    Arachnoid—like a spider's web.

31.    These are named quite the reverse of other veins and arteries of the body, as the pulmonary artery conveys venous blood; but this anomaly is accounted for by their conveying blood to and from the heart, as the other arteries and veins do.

 



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