to Chapter 3]
Poverty is a never ceasing struggle for
the means of living and is a cold place to write poetry in.
The difficulties with which Massey had to contend since his move to
Edinburgh continued with two serious disappointments between the latter
part of 1856 and early 1857. Due to increasing competition between
the Edinburgh newspapers, the proprietor of the Edinburgh News
was forced to reduce his expenses, and Massey was made redundant.
Unable now to afford a housekeeper, he and Rosina had to do
all the work themselves. This was not helped by Rosina taking to
her bed at times, due to acute depression. Again the Stirlings
helped by providing coal for heating and some clothing for Christabel,
then aged 5 yrs.
12 Henderson Road
Dear Mrs Stirling.
I send you one Pound, out of the first money I have received, toward
repaying the two Pounds you were good enough to lend me for my Rent.
The other I hope to send in a day or two. I would have called on
you but for some time past have scarcely left the house for various
reasons. One has been that I and Mrs. Massey have done the
housework between us for the last two months and Mrs. Massey has been
quite laid up in bed during the last week, so that I have had all the
work to do.
If it was you, as we suspect it was, who sent us half a Ton of Coal
recently, we do not know how to thank you sufficiently, for we had none
in the house and had not had any for two days. So you may guess
they were welcome. Mrs. Massey called to try and thank you, but
you were engaged. We are indebted also to some anonymous
providence for a handsome new dress for Christabel, but do not know
whether it be you or not. If so, and if not, God bless you for all
And believe me
Additionally, Craigcrook Castle,
on which he had placed so much hope and hurried to complete, had been
published in October, dedicated to William Stirling. Early sales
of the book went quite well, prompting a second revised edition which
then fell flat. Fraser's Magazine criticised his war verses
in general and accounts of battle in particular, referring especially to
the section ‘Glimpses
of the War’:
Mr Massey was thinking of the jolly excitement of a rush of six
hundred horsemen with plumes waving, sabres high in the air, trumpets
blowing the charge, horses neighing, and the spectators cheering on the
gallant race. Did Mr Massey ever ride a steeple-chase, or did he ever
see one ridden? Let him ask one of the riders what he thinks ... if they
tell him that they have any thoughts to expend upon glory ... Mr Massey
has far too much talent not to perceive at once that his poem, put into
the mouth of a cavalry soldier charging at Balaklava, is a ludicrous
absurdity … We are not criticising his poem except from one point
of view—its utter falsity of representation …
This was the second review, following his earlier
War Waits, that had criticised his
battle scenes. Some years later, after meeting an officer who had
taken part in the heavy cavalry charge at Balaklava, Massey recast this
previously criticised epic, and presented it in a less turgid style to
Cassell's Magazine as ‘Scarlett's
The blank verse poem ‘Craigcrook
Castle’ by itself received favourable comments—Henry Fothergill
Chorley writing in the Athenæum
cited a "richly-coloured evening picture":
Now Sunset burns. A sea of gold on fire
Serenely surges around purple isles:
O'er billows and flame-furrows Day goes down.
Far-watching clouds with ruby glimmer bloom …
But this perceptive reviewer noted the haste in which Massey
had completed his book, and commented that ‘the framework in which these
things are set has been carelessly or infelicitously contrived.’
In letters to William Stirling, Massey wrote acknowledging the deficits:
What you say about my being too Imagerial and wordy is alas too true.
I feel deeply all that can be urged against my verse including the hard
words in Fraser and I trust that that is one step toward amendment.
But somehow I feel much more from what my kindly Reviewers have not said
and I felt they might have said than I do from the harshness of those
who assume to set me and matters right … A Note from my Publisher by
which I am reminded that Craigcrook Castle is not the only castle
I have built in the air. Among the hopes I had formed upon its
anticipated success was the hope that I might be enabled to return you
the money you so generously lent me in my need. Many other hopes
and plans for the future must likewise fall to the ground. I had thought
that my Book might have got me out of debt and left a little to live on
while I might do something else more worthy. But altho' the sale
of the Book cannot surely be quite over, it is quite evident that it
won't redeem me, and I must look to other means. I suppose the principal
cause of this failure—i.e. compared with my wants—lies in the immature
state of the poems and the haste in which they were written and printed.
Their reception has been pretty good but I suppose the public feel
disappointed and do not care to buy. What I am to do for the
future I don't know. My peculiar domestic circumstances sadly
drain on my health and time. I am getting so little master of
either that I don't believe I can earn a living by my pen … I have
generally been pretty hopeful but I often feel that I am, and shall be,
dragged down before I can get a foothold on the world to do something
worth having lived for … We have thought of going back to London as we
have nothing to keep us here except being near Prof. Simpson … We have
lost two of our little ones here and my Wife clings to them, altho' she
thinks her health might be better in England. I feel darkly that
the next two or three years will be the most critical of all. God
help me through them.
Since the American issue of ‘Babe Christabel’, Massey had
been soliciting to have his latest poems including ‘Craigcrook Castle’
incorporated into a new revised edition. The next year by
arrangement with his previous publisher, Ticknor and Fields of Boston
issued his collected works as The Poetical Works of Gerald Massey,
although the format of this did not please him, and he wrote to the
I have received a copy of your edition of my Poems … The Book is
exquisitely got up for a popular pocket poet which I hope some day to
become. But for the life of me I can't understand why Derby's Ed.
should have been reprinted from with all its shortcomings and
imperfections when there was a fifth Ed of Babe Christabel
revised and enlarged three years ago in England. It contained
several other lyrics, and the arrangement of the poems was improved.
Then, unfortunately, you have reprinted the first Ed of Craigcrook
Castle instead of the 2nd which I sent both to Derby and you …
Many of Derby's mistakes were awful. He made 56 in printing from a
printed Copy … I used to write gossiping letters for the Tribune, but on
taking an Editorship in Edinburgh the Correspondence dropped …
During that difficult time and for the following ten years
Massey had good cause to be grateful to Hepworth Dixon. He had
been sending Dixon copies of his books for reviewing, as well as
pre-publication ‘flyers’. Because of Dixon's
continued interest in him and his poetry, early in 1857 Massey had
gained a foothold in the Athenæum as a poetry reviewer, to which
he contributed fifty three reviews by the end of that first year.
This enforced reading probably gave him ideas for a series of lectures
during the coming winter. His prospectus of ten subjects at four
guineas a lecture included Pre-Raphaelitism in Poetry and Painting, The
Principle and Practice of Association, Robert Burns and Love Poetry, The
Spasmodic School and its Critics, and Leaves from the Life of the Poor.
Sydney Dobell noted these, and wrote to the Reverend J. B.
G. M[assey] intends, this winter, to give a course of Lectures,
through England and Scotland, and has sent me his prospectus. If
you have influence with any of the Sheffield Institutions, I know you
will be glad to get him an engagement, and so have the opportunity of
making his personal acquaintance. I am anxious that he should get
as many fixtures as possible, because the profession of lecturer would
be so much more favourable to his poetical studies than that incessant
newspaper and magazine writing which now exhausts his time and brains
. . . 
Although hoping to travel further south during his tour, he
appears to have remained in Scotland and the north of England for that
season. On 20 November 1857, Massey wrote from his address at 12
Henderson Row, concerning a series of lectures he had arranged there and
[Envelope addressed to:
Robt. S. Watson Esq
10 Royal Arcade
Newcastle on Tyne]
12 Henderson Row
20 November 1857
Much obliged for the Letters. Could you send me a Copy of the
announcement you mention? also if Mr. Maclean says anything in Friday’s
Chronicle will you be good enough to ask him, from me, for a
Copy. I have engaged those busy B's you name to give 3 lectures in
Newcastle and 3 in Sunderland for £40 the 6. I think Sunderland
may somewhat nullify the Success which they anticipate in Newcastle.
Will you remember us very kindly to your Father and Mother and Sisters
and Cousin Willie and also our primal Quaker friends who made a bit of
Sunshine for us in that particularly shady place Newcastle in its
November shroud. I send a Copy of my last Book*—corrected Edition
per same post. Mrs Massey has been very poorly since we came home
and has not been able yet to redeem her promise of writing She desires
me to convey all affectionate regards to your Sisters.
* Craigcrook Castle. Ed.
Three lectures commenced on 25 January 1858 at the Nelson
Street Lecture Room, Newcastle upon Tyne. Sir John Fife took the
chair for the first, ‘The Poetry of Hood, and Wit and Humour’.
Although the series was well received, the hall was never completely
Mr Massey has a happy knack of saying good things pleasantly, and
this talent the subject of the lecture enabled him to display to the
best advantage, and though his definitions were a little elaborated and
most of his jokes well known, the audience appeared to be delighted
The Border Record reported one lecture given earlier to the
Galashiels Mechanics Institution on the Poetry of Tennyson, saying:
The most exciting part of the lecture was that contrasting the poetry
of Byron with the poetry of Tennyson. The one, he said, was like
‘light from heaven’, the other like ‘sparks from hell’. Continuing
in this strain for some time, and throwing his whole soul into his
anathemas against the writings of Byron, a few admirers of that poet
gave vent to their feelings in no unmistakable signs of disapprobation
The following month was notable politically for the collapse
of Palmerston's ministry, the main cause of which was an attempt to
please his ally, Napoleon III. Napoleon had complained that a plot
to murder him had been devised in England, and ordered Palmerston to
alter the law to ensure against future conspiracies. An attempt
had indeed been made on the life of the emperor, a bomb having been
thrown under his carriage when he was returning from the opera on 14
January. The attack was credited to the work of Félice Orsini, an
Italian radical, who judged Napoleon to be a traitor in not supporting
the Italian revolutionary cause.
Unwisely, Palmerston acceded to Napoleon's demand with the
Conspiracy to Murder Bill. This caused considerable opposition,
and pressure on the government was increased following the publication
by Edward Truelove of a pamphlet written by
W. E. Adams, Tyrannicide:
is it Justifiable? Truelove was arrested and
proceedings commenced on charges of seditious libel and the incitement
of diverse people to assassinate the emperor. A committee of
defence was formed, and protest meetings held throughout the country.
On 23 February Massey was to have addressed a rally in Newcastle
presided over by Joseph Cowen, supporter of radicals who was later to
acquire the Newcastle Chronicle, but the bill had been defeated
the previous Friday and Palmerston was forced to resign. Those
present at the meeting were told by Henry Buckle that Mr Massey was very
unwell; but besides that, not having been in town for the last few days,
he had concluded that after what took place in the House of Commons on
Friday night, the meeting would not be held, and he had therefore made
other arrangements; otherwise it was his full intention to have been
present on this occasion. In a letter to
the meeting Massey had written:
Allow me also to rejoice that a sufficient number of Englishmen were
found true to the national spirit to give that significant hint to
Continental despotism which was given in the House of Commons last
Friday night. I have never believed that the heart of this famous
English people was with the corrupt and bloody despotisms that only
govern a nation by piecemeal murder. Now, I wish that our country
should be on the best of terms with France. France, mind—the
people of France—the heart and intellect of France. But then, Louis
Napoleon is not France … he has had the power and prestige of an
alliance with England—he has murdered and expatriated thousands of
Frenchmen, whose only crime lay in their patriotism... It is to be hoped
that Lord Palmerston's ‘bubble of reputation’ for national spirit and
love of liberty has burst for ever …
The letter was read by Cowan, and repeatedly applauded by the
audience, who cheered most loudly at the close.
The new Derby government did not press the charges against Truelove; a
return of not guilty was made prior to the trial which had been fixed
for June, and he was acquitted.
The French Colonel's Bill. A Broadsheet
(Newcastle City Libraries)
Massey was able to write only one article during 1858. ‘Poetry—The
Spasmodists’ was published in February, and showed that he
did not align himself totally with that style of poetry,
demonstrated in particular by Dobell's ‘Balder’:
A poet should be a seeker and a finder of the truth and
beauty that lie in realities around him, rather than a producer
of beauty out of the deeps of his own personality. What
constitutes spasm, but weakness trying to be strong, and
collapsing in the effort … Mr Dobell appears to select his
subject, and the point of treatment, for their remoteness from
all ordinary reality, and then to refine upon these until they
are intangible to us … We urge a return to the lasting and true
subject matter of poetry, and a firmer reliance on primal truths
… As Realists, we do not forget that it is not in the vulgarity
of common things, nor the mediocrity of average characters, nor
the familiarity of familiar affairs, nor the everydayness of
everyday lives, that the poetry consists … but those universal
powers and passions which he shares with heroes and martyrs, are
the true subjects of poetry … We must have poetry for men who
work, and think, and suffer, and whose hearts would feel faint
and their souls grow lean if they fed on such fleeting
deliciousness and confectionery trifle as the spasmodists too
frequently offer them …
At the end of March, Massey concluded his series of Edinburgh
lectures at the Queen Street Hall by returning to familiar
subjects. In ‘Thomas Hood, and Wit and Humour’, Massey
expressed the view that Hood's humour was of the most ethereal
kind—neither coarse, like Swift's, nor sarcastic like
Byron's—his wit being anchored fast in humanity. The
Scotsman on the 24 March 1858 reported that the lecture
was received by a large audience who frequently applauded and
gave a hearty vote of thanks at the conclusion. The
Scotsman followed with a report on the 27 March of Massey's
‘The Poetry of Alfred Tennyson’, which Massey greatly admired.
His views on the Laureate’s verse—they met once—are interesting
On Thursday evening [25th], Mr Gerald Massey gave the last of
his series of lectures in Queen Street Hall [Edinburgh], the
subject being ‘The Poetry of Alfred Tennyson.’ Lord Murray
Mr Massey, by way of introduction, glanced
at the two divisions of Poetry—the objective and the subjective.
Tennyson came under the subjective class. By beginning his
poetry with minute and careful particularising—not like those
who broadly handled the brush and produced effects not to be
desired—his reputation was slowly and securely built.
Many people pretended to view his poetry unfavourably—they
thought it was vague, involved and meaningless. However,
Tennyson never "moved with aimless feet." His verse was
pregnant with meaning, and though at times subtle and obscure at
first sight, this vagueness occurred only when the poet reached
one of those eternal truths which, like a cut diamond, might be
six-sided, and present as many meanings. The stream of his
speech might be deep—perhaps unfathomable to many—but it was
never muddy, except through the splashings and founderings of
the reader. The great function of the poet was to give
expression to the beautiful; and surely, he did well who
translated a page of that language.
Tennyson's poetry was a world of beauty—not a world like
Wordsworth's with the look of eternity in its aspect; not like
Shelly's, so fantastic, so aspiring in its forms; not like
Keats's, whose deity was Pan, who revelled in a wilderness of
sweets, where the very weeds were fragrant; nor like Byron's,
which was a volcano extinct. Tennyson's world was like
that fairer world of beauty of which they got glimpses only in
the delectable views of the imagination. It lay near
heaven. It had a holy ground. It might be an invisible world to
some, but others could glance up at it. It was a world
where the mortal met with the immortal, and saw the spirits of
the past move by grandly and solemnly, with music perfect and
ineffable, dying away into the faintest spirit-sweetness,
seeming to be answered by an ethereal far-off echo in the life
that is to come.
The lecturer showed that it required a refined and educated
taste to appreciate the poetry of Tennyson, which was noble,
moral, and pure, having a womanly sanctity pervading it.
He contrasted it with the poetry of Byron, noticing how the
latter was sunk in self-consciousness, while the former was
patriotic and representing humanity. He gave several
readings from the more prominent of Tennyson's poems, and
especially quoted from his In Memoriam. He
considered that it possessed so wide a range of thought and
beauty in its expression that he could not but consider it as
the greatest poetic effort of the last two hundred years—the
climax and crown of Tennyson's poetic life, to be equalled by
nothing he had yet done or would hereafter perform.
Massey's life with Rosina was becoming an increasing problem.
Continually agitating to get away from Edinburgh, her frequent
mood changes together with symptoms of illness that often
confined her to bed, eventually forced Massey to move.
Very depressed, he wrote to Stirling in March:
I have determined on leaving Edinburgh this spring and I
expect to take a little place in England near Hertford right in
the Country. Rent 20£ but I find that with all my
Lecturing efforts and planning I shall run short of 20£ or so to
leave here honourably and get there safely. Whether I can
honourably and safely appeal to you for that amount I am
doubtful and am really ashamed to do so after all your kindness
but I don't know what else to do. My Lectures are over for
this year and I have drawn on all my writing resources to the
utmost penny to get clear of and pay the large expenses of
moving our things a distance of 420 miles and still fall short.
I must trust to Lecturing for a Winter or two until I get my
next Book done—a sort of Autobiography— but the Summer will be
my difficulty … I am poor enough if you only knew it. In
Lecturing even I cannot leave my Wife at home she is not fit to
be left. Her head is sure to go bad when she is left alone
Prior to his move, Massey prepared a list of lectures that he
proposed delivering to Associations and Mechanics Institutes
during the rest of the year. In The Scotsman,
24 March, 1858, were advertised the following:
A course of Six Lectures on our chief living Poets.
Cromwell and the Commonwealth.
The Poetry of Wordsworth, and its influence on the Age.
The Ideal of Democracy.
The Ballad Poetry of Ireland and Scotland.
Thomas Carlyle and his writings.
Russell Lowell, the American Poet, his Poems and Bigelow Papers.
Shakespeare - his Genius, Age, and Contemporaries.
The Prose and Poetry of the Rev. Chas. Kingsley.
The Age of Shams and Era of Humbug.
The Sonz-literature of Germany and Hungary.
Phrenology, the Science of Human Nature.
The Life, Genius and Poetry of Shelley.
On the necessity of Cultivating the Imagination.
American Literature, with pictures of transatlantic Authors.
Burns, and the Poets of the People.
The curse of Competition and the beauty of Brotherhood.
John Milton: his Character, Life and Genius.
Genius, Talent and Tact, with illustrations from among living
The Hero as the Worker, with illustrious instance of the Toiler
Mirabeau, a Life History.
On the effects of Physical and mental Impressions.
The family's removal from Edinburgh to Hertfordshire,
which they hoped would ease their domestic strain, proved yet
again to be unfortunate. An account of their arrival was
sent to Stirling on 6 June 1858:
… I have managed to take the four-hundred-and-twenty-mile leap
in the dark and alighted here three miles from Broxbourne
Station about pennyless with a great deal of our furniture
smashed in coming and wanting mending … I have got the farmhouse
of a Gentleman who does not live on his farm who lets me house
and garden for £20 Rent and taxes … It may be thought that when
I ask 5 guineas per Lecture in a public advertisement I am
pretty well off—but I am compelled to take my Wife with me
wherever I go, which as you may imagine makes my expenses
threefold—but this is quite necessary. I could not leave
her at home with the Children … 
For the ensuing five years Rosina was to make Massey's winter
lecturing tours, when they took place, a fearful but necessary
ordeal. Obliged on occasions to take her with him, he did
find it possible at times to promote her as giving recitations
of his poetry. These were well reported by the press,
saying that she read with exquisite taste and quiet power, but
many indispositions made her appearance at times quite
unpredictable. Thomas Cooper, who had kept an interested
eye on Massey's writing since he left the Chartist movement, was
less understanding about his domestic difficulties. He
wrote to Thomas Chambers on the 22nd August 1861:
… Mrs. Cooper seems young again! She runs after the
wild flowers with the elasticity of a girl & the rapt enjoyment
of a child!
Of such a wife a Poet might sing; but I wonder that poor Gerald
Massey parades the figure of the drunken plague to whom he is so
sillily tied himself … 
List of lectures.
Robert Burns' centenary fell on 25 January 1859. To
honour this event the directors of the Crystal Palace Company
organised a special poetry
competition with a winner's prize of fifty guineas.
Massey was quick to respond, as did 620 other entrants, but he
failed to win the prize. This was awarded to
Miss Isa Craig, a contributor
of verse to The Scotsman under the pen-name ‘Isa’.
There were 14,000 people present for the reading of her prize
poem. However, the judges, Richard Monckton Milnes MP for
Pontefract and prominent literary figure, Tom Taylor, author,
playwright and one time editor of Punch, together with
Theodore Martin, author and translator of literature,
recommended that the first six be published. Massey was
placed fourth in merit, and his entry
Robert Burns: A Centenary
Song was published in March.
The reviews which referred also to some political items on
Palmerston that Massey had included in the book, were later to
cause him some concern.
James Macfarlan had also entered the competition [Robert
Burns: A Centenary Ode], but was unplaced.
For some time a number of friends had been suggesting that he
should make an application to the government to be placed on
their Civil Pension List. This had not been proceeded
with, due to Massey's political views that had received
considerable attention in previous years. However, with a
change of government, he considered it now to be worth
His decision was strengthened by the press, which had
recently suggested such a step when they commented: ‘We are
sorry to hear that calamity has been busy in Mr Massey's
household, and that he is now struggling sorely to keep the wolf
from the door … The bounty of the Crown … would allow him to
give more time to his productions …’ They concluded rather
pointedly with a phrase that must have made Massey wince, ‘It
might also have the effect of making him a little more discreet
in the expression of his political opinions.’ William
Stirling promised to make Massey's request known to Lord John
Manners, then in the Earl of Derby's Cabinet.
As if to mitigate to some extent the loss of not winning the
Burns competition, he was informed that the government, on the
plea of Stirling, had granted him a gift of £100. His
wife, not knowing what to do, had a good cry, assuming that this
would solve their debt and other financial commitments.
This it did, but only temporarily, and he had to turn again to
Stirling for assistance. Becoming in arrears with his rent
and having failed to get any of his lectures published, he had
offered a journal editor some of his poems for £20 and not
received the money. Stirling dealt with the legal affair,
which was resolved satisfactorily, but Massey was left with the
expenses. In February 1860 he was called away from a
On getting home I find my Wife too ill to have written … I
was sent for home as they thought her dying. I think she
may perhaps tide over her present attack but she is very ill.
And our present circumstances are enough to turn the scales
against her. We have to leave here this month and as I
have a house offered to me in the Lake District, and as the
Doctor thinks a change as soon as possible the only chance of
getting my Wife out of her morbid mental condition, I think of
going there if I can anyhow clear off to go, and raise enough
money to move with but how to do it I don't know for my
law-affair and this illness will break my back in a money sense
for some months to come … 
Before he left he wrote to Harney, who was then living in
Jersey and editing the Jersey Independent, hinting at his
availability for lecturing:
… The Bearer of this is a poor unfortunate Brother of mine
whom Poverty has driven into the Army . . . He never was able to
look after himself has worked and starved on and off for
years—and perhaps a year or two in the Army may do him some
good. I thought that you would be able to speak a word of
cheer to him in a place where he knows no one. I dare say
he will remember you—and that you would do this for Auld Lang
Syne … Perhaps some day I may get invited to your place in my
Lecturing capacity … 
In all Massey's writings and letters he never makes reference
to any of his brothers by name. In his poem
Our Heroes he
I had a gallant Brother, loved at home, and dear
I have a mourning Mother, winsome Wife, and Children
He lies with Balaklava's dead …
but none of his brothers is listed in published Crimean war
deaths in battle.
The house to which the family moved, ‘Brantwood,’ overlooking
Lake Coniston, was owned by his friend ‘Spartacus’ of earlier
Chartist days, W. J. Linton.
A wood engraver and former contributor of poems and articles to
Harney's papers, he had in 1849, together with Thornton Hunt,
commenced the weekly radical Leader with G. H. Lewes as
literary editor. But no sooner had the family moved to
Brantwood, than Massey found that circumstances appeared as
usual to conspire against any form of successful literary
endeavours. The first incident occurred on the family's
arrival at Coniston railway station, several miles from
Brantwood, when he found that he had insufficient money to
redeem the furniture, which had to remain at the station.
At that time he hoped to be able to furnish some rooms in the
property, which he could sub-let in the summer months and make a
good profit. The second incident followed a three week
lecture tour, for which he received four five pound notes.
He had managed to clear his furniture from the station, but
still remained in debt. During his absence an attempt had
been made to distrain on his furniture, which appeared to be the
only items of value he possessed. As he was about to
enclose some of the money ready to post, his children who were
playing near him and asking for various pieces of paper, took
them with some other loose sheets, and put them on the fire!
Fortunately William Sterling was again able to help out and
Massey, very dispirited, wrote glumly that not much choice was
given to him in anything that he did, and that his circumstances
at times placed him in a position that was as painful to him, as
perhaps appeared unaccountable to other people. The only
things he could rely on were his lectures during the winter
months, and these were frequently interrupted from home.
In this situation, he again considered the possibility of being
placed on the government pension list, although as he mentioned
to Stirling, he felt strongly against any appeal being made
personally to Lord Palmerston, again in power with a Liberal
Government, as he had no faith in him politically. In a
second letter he reiterated his doubts, due this time to his
previous literary indiscretion:
When writing to you about Lord Palmerston, I quite forgot
that I had written about him in my last publication, and the
Saturday Review quotes it as very funny.
The fun to them would be death to me, I expect with regard to
any chance with his Lordship and friends. I don't suppose
he reads my verses but I suppose they all see the Saturday
Review … 
That journal had reviewed his Robert Burns: A Centenary
Song and Other Lyrics not entirely favourably. While
acknowledging his eye for external beauty, his ear for melody
and an appreciation of feeling and grace, it denied him
possession of fancy or facility. It considered that
Socialist and Chartist poetry was too narrow in thought, and his
poetical faculty debased by a selfish view of social relations;
but that he still might win an abiding place in literature if he
would leave off politics. Despite these criticisms, the
Review did consider that his poem 'Old
Harlequin Pam' was yet more amusing than the other political
silhouettes in Craigcrook Castle's 'Glimpses
of the War'. In these poems he had made allusions to
Czar Nicholas, Napoleon and Palmerston. Nicholas had been
referred to as a statue of Satan, looking down on a drooling and
mumbling British Lion ineffectually wagging its tail. But
in Massey's poem, 'Nicholas and
the British Lion', the Lion has some particularly sharp
teeth that it uses, when Czar Nicholas dares to thrust his head
in its mouth, to bite it off :
… And the poor old beast, at whose aspect mild
The meanest thing dared rail,
Shakes his mane like a Conqueror's bloody plumes,
And—quietly wags his tail …
But the poem on Palmerston was far less subtle:
… In an Age of Sham,
Our greatest of Humbugs is Harlequin Pam.
Humbug in riches it reeks and rolls,
Humbug in luxury lazily lolls,
Humbug in Senate and Humbug in Shop,
Humbug makes sweet the Assassin's last drop;
And Pam, Pam is the King of all Sham,
Our greatest of Men must be Harlequin Pam.
England, this is the Man for you,
The 'Times' says so, and it must be true …
Brantwood. (Picturesque Europe, Appleton, N.Y., 1875).
During his short stay at Brantwood, he wrote one article for
the North British Review on ‘American
Humour’. Most of his published
articles were based on lectures delivered during the winter
months, when not interrupted by his wife's illness. In
this article he argued that humour preceded wit, the former
commencing with the practical joke that deals with outward
things, the nature of the action, and reaches both the educated
and uneducated. Wit is concerned more with the quality of
thoughts, and is more artificial, being culturally connected
with a more complex state of society. He considered that
the greatest of all American humorists was James Lowell, whose
Biglow Papers reminded him of the lusty strength and boundless
humour of great Elizabethan literature.
Commencing in March 1860 he wrote a series of poetical
contributions for Charles Dickens' magazine All the Year
Round. Five signed poems were published up to August,
with three unsigned from August to November, for which he hoped
to be paid ten guineas each. But in a letter from Dickens'
assistant William Wills to Massey, Dickens had considered that
as the copyright was available to Massey after a reasonable
time, following publication in All the Year Round, the
sum of £50 in total was fair. ‘… You will, I hope, believe
on reflection that the fifty pounds is a fair and just
remuneration for the advantage we derive from them. If you
do think so, we may at this moment cry, "quits!"…’
Massey also contributed 30 poems to Alexander Strahan's Good
Words magazine from October 1860 to April 1872, and poems
and epigrams to Cassell's Magazine and Punch in
the early to mid 1870s.
By the spring of 1861 the family had made another move,
probably finding that Coniston was too isolated and inconvenient
for the travelling necessary for Massey's lectures.
Accommodation was taken in the High Street, Rickmansworth,
between Basing House—built in 1740 on the site of William Penn's
house—and the National School House.
Massey's next book, published in April 1861, was
Havelock's March and Other
Poems, based on the revolt of the Indian Bengal Army.
Sir Henry Havelock's ‘Army of Retribution’ march for the relief
of Cawnpore in 1857 formed the basis of the poem. Massey
described this as an ‘historic photograph’, rather than a poem
in the aesthetic sense. The book was received again rather
tepidly by the press, as ‘abounding in gracious phrases and
vigorous thought—yet quite unable to hold its place in the
affections or in the memory’. The
other material was largely ignored because, as Massey wrote in
his own copy, ‘And the d—d fool of an Author forgot to say that
the rest of the Book was new and so the Critics treated it as
all reprint.’ But the treatment of the poem,
was well up to the partisan standard expected of Massey when he
dealt with British nationalism:
Come hither my brave Soldier boy, and sit you by
To hear a tale, a fearful tale, a glorious tale of
How Havelock with his handful, all so faithful and
Held on in that far Indian land, to bear our England
through. . .
No tramp, no cheer of Brothers near; no distant
Nothing but Death goes to and fro betwixt the glare
The living remnant try to hold their bits of
Dark gaps continual in their midst; the dead all
And saddest corpses still are those that die and do
With just a little glimmering light of life to show
them by . . .
He ignored or appeared unaware of one of the immediate causes
of the war which placed British behaviour in a less acceptable
stance, and resulted in gross atrocities against the British
residents. Attempts to convert some of the Indian sepoys
to Christianity had resulted in stories of compulsory
conversion, and the annexation of the Oude province disbanded
that king's army, thereby causing much discontent and some
violence. The additional story that pig and cow fat was
used to grease a new paper made for cartridges spread rapidly
among the Moslems and Hindus despite British efforts to deny it,
and eventually the whole Bengal army of 100,000 men became
involved. The resulting massacres shocked the British
public. During his lecture tours in
the north of England Massey had made the acquaintance of John
King, a type-founder from Sheffield who had developed as an
author and poet. As well as contributing to local papers,
his small number of published works included a sketch of
Ebenezer Elliott, the Corn
Law rhymer, while his biography of Allesandro Gavazzi, Italian
priest and social reformer, had been reprinted several times and
was a source of finance for a number of years. Now living
with his wife and three children in a third floor apartment at 7
Newman Street, Oxford Street, London, King was enduring
considerable hardship. Unable to write due to pulmonary
tuberculosis which confined him to bed, he was reduced to
selling his household items in order to pay the rent.
Massey rather audaciously asked Stirling if he could visit King,
and perhaps get him some aid from the Literary Fund. Good
natured as always, Stirling was pleased to assist. But
King had already obtained £25 from the fund two years
previously, and they turned down his application on the grounds
that between that date and the present, he had not written any
more books. King then ended all further chance of a grant
when he wrote that ‘even dogs have received the sympathies of
the poorest kitchen’, and that he could not stand the ordeal of
making another application for fear of further refusal.
In May or June 1861 due to more pressing financial
difficulties Massey wrote again to William Stirling, this time
querying the possibility of obtaining a grant from the Royal
Literary Fund on his own behalf:
... The immediate occasion was that my Father had just been
finally turned off from his 8/- per week work and his future
bread depended on me or the Workhouse. He is nearly 70
years old and has worked at one place for 40 years. They
now turn him adrift penniless … 
Whilst I was down in the North my effects were sold by the
Sheriff of Lancashire for debt—not a large one either, and I
could not help it. Yet according to all appearance I ought
to be well off … For my last book I got £30 only which is not
much in the way of repayment for the life-blood, time, and
critical bullying it costs. I don't want, and never have
wanted to write for a living, only my home affairs have been
such as prevented me from taking a situation from home … I don't
understand the reception of my Book. [Havelock's March and
other poems. Ed.] It seems to have fallen dead almost.
I thought it had some life in it and would meet with a different
response. I am sure of having reached a greater simplicity
and directness of speech. So I am told that there is
nothing in the Book to equal Babe Christabel, which was a
merest imagery … 
A minor appreciation of his earlier efforts to uplift the
working-class was made that year by a poet colleague,
A pleasant little volume of poems,
Sheen and Shade,
had a lyric dedicated to Massey, in which he was referred to as:
A second Burns, that never could be bribed,
By Fear or Favour, to forsake the class
Whence thou didst spring—the lowly labouring mass,
Whose feelings, fears and hopes have tipped with
Thy potent pen! … 
He noted Billington's kindness some years later, but at that
earlier time he would have preferred hard cash to pleasant
By November he had, on the advice of friends, decided to make
an application to be placed on the Civil Service Pensions List,
despite his disinclination to appeal to Viscount Palmerston,
then Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. This
involved asking persons of influence who knew him, his work and
circumstances, to write testimonials on his behalf as being a
proper subject for consideration. Carlyle, Ruskin, Landor,
Thackeray, Browning, Lady Alford and Tennyson responded.
His request to Tennyson sent on the 20 November, stated that he
was obtaining as many recommendations and testimonials as he
could from persons of influence and authors of eminence, and
that ‘… A word from you will help them much and me still more …
The praise my verses have got has not meant much in the shape of
pudding, and I find it desperate hard work to cling by the
skirts of literature so as not to go down quite …’
He sent a letter also to the Rt. Hon Benjamin Disraeli, asking
if he would consider, in addition to the names already appended,
to add his. Massey hoped, if his
memorial was successful, to obtain a regular grant of £100 per
year. Unfortunately it was not.
He wrote to Stirling on 18 July 1862, ‘… You will, I presume,
have seen the published Pension List without my name? I
suppose my chance is gone now for a year. What I am to do
I don't know. I was led to think from words dropped by
Lord Palmerston that the application would have been successful
…’ Morgan Evans, who had drawn up
the memorial on Massey's behalf and was aware of his
circumstances, was able to solicit a few of the signatories of
the memorial to join in a small subscription fund to give aid
during Massey's pressing domestic difficulties.
Lady Alford subscribed £25, but the total amount obtained is not
During 1861 he contributed thirty-five reviews for the
Athenæum, which included John Greenleaf Whittier's Home
Ballads and Poems. ‘Here is poetry worth waiting for, a poet
worth listening to. . . It has the healthy smell of Yankee soil
with the wine of fancy poured over it …’
Two articles for the North British Review completed his
literary output for that year, of which a sensitive ‘Poems
and Plays of Robert Browning’ referred to Browning's lack of
popular appeal at that time. This was due, Massey
considered, to his subject matter which required philosophic
appreciation rather than the emotional energies of
identification. Nevertheless, he admitted, together with
Douglas Jerrold and many others, to have found Browning's
‘Sordello’ incomprehensible. ‘Poets
and Poetry of Young Ireland’, although dealing with poets
less well known in England, benefited from a greater cohesive
structure in poetic comparisons. The differentiation
between the Norse influence in Anglo-Saxon England and the
Celtic in Ireland can be detected, he said, by the English
appeals to principles, and the Irish for appeals to affection
for a person; to the future when hopeful, but turning to the
past when mournful. These elements, Massey asserted,
present themselves in their poetical subject matter. His
strong subjectively tonal description of the poet James Mangan,
who was employed in Dublin University Library, is distinctly
The white halo of bleached hair round the head, the dark halo
round his eyes—eyes of a weird blue, as of one who could see
spirits; a lighted corpse-like face, with that faint lavender
shadow which they wear who eat opium, and dream its dreams.
A strange figure, and yet not startling: a child would not have
feared to pull the old brown carmelite coat, climb the offered
knee, and kiss the face where queer humour and quaint pathos
He made another attempt to obtain a permanent job around late
1861 or early 1862 when he answered an advertisement for a well
paid salaried social lead article writer for the Daily
Telegraph. Following an interview and having been
appointed for a trial period, he was told after this time that
whilst he had great ability, he was unsuitable on account of his
articles being too political. This
was another disappointment, as he had hoped, if successful, to
have given up poetry for prose writing. On taking up the
appointment he had also given up his lecturing for that winter,
and he found himself once again without any regular income.
Following the failure of his first attempt to obtain a Civil
List pension, he was advised to present his memorial again to
the government, for consideration early in 1863. At the
same time he began the necessary proceedings to make an
application to the Royal Literary Fund for a monetary grant.
This also involved obtaining testimonials from persons of note,
and Lady Marian Alford and Professor Blackie were, among others,
willing to respond. The application proved successful with
the result of fifty pounds the following January. Massey
wrote to the fund acknowledging that the money had come at a
time ‘… when my poor Wife is suffering from one of the worst
mental attacks she has ever had and without your assistance I
might have been unable to secure for her the aid and attendance
which was so necessary’. Rosina's
mental affliction had reached a crisis, and doctors were
pressing for her removal to a mental hospital. Usually
able to control her violent episodes by mesmerism, Massey found
that this was not having the usual calming effect. One
night they were woken up by sounds of scratching and knocking on
the footboard of the bed. When nothing was found to
account for the noises, and the possibility of burglars had been
investigated, the housekeeper and her mother were called to the
bedroom and, by now, a hysterical Rosina. The sounds
continuing, Massey thought ‘epidemic delusion’ was no answer,
and that the idea of ‘spirits’ making those noises was
disgusting. However, by means of a code of raps, they
determined that the noises had been made deliberately to bring a
communication to their attention. Rosina, who appeared to
see two people, sat up in bed, and said, ‘Mother—Mary!’ By
further questioning using the same code, they learned that
Rosina's daughter and mother were present. Massey was told
not to put his wife away the next day, although she would be
worse, but that she would be better by the following week.
He was able to report later that, although the spirits had as
often been wrong as right, on that occasion they had been
The year 1862 continued the general unfortunate trend in
Massey's affairs. Healthwise he suffered from tonsil
abscesses that he had to have lanced, and nervous stress showed
itself by palpitations of the heart. This latter condition
continued throughout his life making him fear that he had heart
disease, despite being assured otherwise by doctors on varying
occasions. That year he was able to write only four
reviews and one article. In ‘The
Poems and other Works of Mrs Browning’ he commented (for
that present era) with notable exceptions of Charlotte Brontë
and George Eliot, on the lack of art and literature composed by
women due, as he considered, to their whole of life uttered in
one word ‘love’, and their whole world compressed in the one
word ‘home’. They live reality in such fullness, and there
is no imperative need to seek refuge in an ideal world. And
then, where is the incentive to sing or write? The late
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, he considered, was another of the
distinguished women whose imagination, tenderness, feeling and
vigour of thought made her poetry outstanding. Her most
famous and powerful work, ‘Aurora Leigh’ competes, Massey said,
successfully with the novelist in enlarging the boundaries of
the poet's outer world.
In early November and yet again almost pennyless, he deplored
the fact that with winter approaching he was unable to afford
the necessary warm clothing for his children. Furthermore,
because of his wife's mental condition he had been prevented
from making bookings for winter lecture tours. Virtually
at the last minute however, he was able to arrange with Harney
in Jersey to present two lectures on 26 and 27 November at the
Lyric Hall, Cattle Street, St. Helier. He had mentioned
previously the possibility of lecturing in Jersey when he wrote
to Harney in 1858. In advertising the lectures a week in
advance he was hopeful that his wife might at the same time be
well enough to travel and give some poetical readings. To
give Harney much credit he gave a three column introduction in
the Jersey Independent, with a biographical sketch of
Massey together with two of his poems from Havelock's March.
Massey should have made his first appearance on the 26th, but
was delayed and had missed the boat by less than a minute.
His first lecture on the 27th was heralded by a poem in the
Independent, 'Welcome to Gerald Massey', that was written
probably by Harney:
Thou man of Nature's moulding, son of song,
First tuned the harp the storms of life among,
Formed by the Muse, thy meek impassion'd mind
'Midst life's encounters, tender grew, and kind;
It gave thee early bitter draughts to drink.
Mid scorn and hardship, taught thee how to think,—
To spurn oppression, hearts, and hands, to free,
And bid the world achieve its Liberty...
Although the hall was not filled, 'Sir Charles Napier, the
Conqueror of Seinde' was appreciated by the audience of about
150 who frequently interrupted by applauding. But the
Jersey Times for reasons not stated, did not consider Massey
a first class lecturer. The second lecture, ‘England's Old
Sea Kings; how they lived, fought and died’, had a much greater
attendance, and the subject matter lent itself better to
Massey's ‘high poetical powers … the lecturer's
descriptions of our naval exploits were heart-thrilling and
brilliant, and were received enthusiastically by the audience’.
Due to the success of those two lectures, an extra booking was
made for ‘Yankee Humour’ early the following week. By that
time Rosina was well enough to appear personally, and she was
able to replace her husband on the 4 December for recitations of
his and other more well known poets' verse:
If an exception be made to the weakness of this lady's voice,
it may be said, with truth, that she reads very well; her
expression is sweet and pleasing, and her enunciation distinct.
The poems which she read embraced several of her husband's best
productions, interspersed with choice selections from the Poet
Laureate, Russell Lowell, and poor Hood … The interesting
entertainment closed with ‘A
National Anthem’, by Massey.
Before leaving the Channel Isles, his wife feeling well at
that time, he was able to arrange two more lectures, this time
in Guernsey the following week. Massey's religious
opinions were then not yet overtly unorthodox, so his reception
was in contrast to Charles Bradlaugh's lecturing venture in that
mainly Catholic island in 1861, when he was met with great
hostility. Together with a threatened royal salute of
rotten eggs, placards exhorting ‘Kill the Infidel’ were
displayed in the town, and the lecture room was damaged.
Massey repeated his carefully chosen ‘Old England's Sea Kings’
to a highly respectable audience of about six hundred, and the
reporter ‘Found much to admire in his composition—much to
confirm the reputation to which he has attained.’ But
added, ‘We should observe that Mr Massey is not an elocutionist
…’ Massey's second lecture that week was assisted as in
Jersey, by Rosina's poetry readings. ‘Mrs Massey read in
what may be termed "a drawing-room" style, without any attempt
at declamation. Her reading was intelligent and touching
and was much applauded.’
The lecture series barely saved Massey from total financial
disaster that winter, and early in 1863 to his great relief he
heard that he would be granted a yearly allowance of £70 Civil
List pension. The Scotsman announced the pension as
having been awarded "in appreciation of his services as a lyric
poet sprung from the people". But fate had one more card
to play, and in May he was compelled yet again to ask William
Stirling for temporary assistance:
‘… it is the last effort I can make to save my Furniture from
being sold on the 16th Inst. The Pension has not yet come,
and if it is not quick 'twill be too late … I have not earned a
penny by lecturing now these two years, not being able to leave
home. All my Books are in
pawn at Mr. Wood's High Holborn, and in the last extremity I was
driven to execute a ‘Bill of Sale’ on my Furniture. And I
am perfectly unable to meet a payment of £6.10.0 on the 16th
Inst. I do not know where to turn. Lady Alford is in
Madeira with her Son. I know no one else who could help me
with £10. The position is not owing to any want of effort.
I have tried and tried desperately. I have some £50 worth
of matter not yet used in the hands of Publishers. But the
payments will come too late … P.S. I enclose a Note which
refers to the Bill of Sale which gives Mr. Hollingsworth it
seems the right to ask for my Rent Receipts. I don't know
whether it makes the matter more serious by the Rent not being
Massey finally received his pension on 18 June, with a
declaration of regret conveyed by Lord Mount-Temple, that the
amount available at that time should have been so small. 
Although not yet free from financial constraints, he was able
to repay his debts to Stirling, and his position began to show a
slight improvement. Rosina, however, remained a cause of
much disturbance, particularly in regard to his literary affairs
and lecturing activities.
Fraser's Magazine, February 1857, 223-26. (Little Lessons for
Little Poets) Reprinted in Stasny, John F., Victorian Poetry.
A Collection of Essays from the Period (New York, Garland,
Cassell's Magazine, 8, (Nov. 1873), 113-4.
Athenæum, 25 Oct. 1856,
Strathclyde Regional Archives, Stirling of Keir Collection. Mss.
TSK.27/7/221 and TSK.29/7/220. Undated.
Huntington Library, San Marino, California. HM. FI 3294. Undated.
Dixon from Massey in the Mitchell Library, Glasgow. Ms. Main 891114.
and Letters of Sidney Dobell, 2, 94.
Newcastle Chronicle, 29 Jan. 1858.
The Reasoner, 6 Jan. 1858, 6.
(1821-1862). Fluent linguist and historian, freethinker and radical.
Author of History of Civilisation in England. In a letter
from 12 Henderson Row, Edinburgh, Massey thanks Buckle for ‘the
copies of Orsini.’ (Ms. Duke University, Great Britain papers, Misc.
Vol. 1, p. 24. Undated.) These probably included the Memoirs and
Adventures of Orsini, trans. 1857.
Northern Daily Express, 24 Feb. 1858.
British Review, 28, (Feb. 1858), 231-50.
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/8/79. Undated.
Ibid. Ms. TSK.29/8/30.
Two ms. poems are appended, that Massey sent to Stirling as an
example of his present political opinions, ‘A Poem for Pam’ and ‘The
Broad-bottomed Ministry’, Ms. TSK.29/10/135. The latter was
published in his next volume of poetry,
Havelock's March, as ‘Farmer
Forrest's Opinion of the Broadbottomed Ministry’.
Robert Burns: A Centenary Song,
and Other Lyrics (Glasgow, Kent, 1859). Included also (with
Macfarlan's poem) in
Anderson, G., Finlay, J., (Eds.) The Burns Centenary Poems (Glasgow,
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/10/128. Undated.
The Harney Papers,
letter 156. Haight suggests a date of 1856 for this letter, but
Massey was in Edinburgh until mid 1858 prior to his move to
Cook F., Cook, A.,
Casualty Roll for the Crimea (London, Hayward, 1976).
Saturday Review, 5
Mar. 1859, 281-2.
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/10/134. Undated.
The poem 'Nicholas
and the British Lion' was included in W. Davenport Adams'
Comic Poets of the Nineteenth Century (London, Routledge, n.d.
North British Review, 33,
(Nov. 1860), 461-85.
Huntington Library, San Marino, California. All the Year Round
letterbook, HM. 17507.f.114.E.A. Oppenlander's Dickens' All the
Year Round: Descriptive Index and Contributor List (New York,
Whitston, 1984), p. 281, does not give attributions to Massey's
poems ‘Old King Hake,’ 25
Aug. 1860, 468-9, ‘A Letter in
Black’, 1 Sep. 1860, 494-5 and ‘Poor
Margaret’, 3 Nov. 1860, 83-84 in All the Year Round. A
further poem by Massey, ‘The
Sunken City’ was published on 23 May 1863, p. 231 and not
attributed. Oppenlander, part quoting Wills' letter to Massey (p.
53-4) inserts ‘not’ in the paragraph quoted above, to make it read:
‘. . . If you do not think so, we may at this moment cry
which makes the letter sound like an ultimatum rather than
a polite request. I am grateful to Sara Hodson, Curator of
Literary Manuscripts at The Huntington Library for providing me with
a full transcription of this letter. Also in the file is a
letter from Wills to Massey dated 16 May 1860 in which Wills returns
a poem to Massey:
‘… Read the poem in our No 16, and you will find you have
been forestalled. It may however be a little amelioration of your
disappointment to know that your predecessor was your accomplished
landlord, Mr. W. J. Linton …’
(The Huntington Library, San Marino, HM. Fl 5432). Linton's
poem ‘Great Odds at Sea’ [see ‘Grenville's Last Fight’] was
published in the issue of 13 Aug. 1859, 378-9, and included also in
Linton's own pasted up copy of Prose and Verse, 9, 159-62, held in
the British Library. Both Linton's and Massey's poems refer to the
sea action of Sir Richard Grenville, in which he was killed in
action with Spanish ships off the Azores in 1591. Massey's poem ‘Sir
Richard Grenville's Last Fight’ was published later in his
Athenæum, 17 Aug. 1861, 209-10.
Anon., Narrative of
the Indian Revolt (London, Vickers, 1858). For an Indian's
account of the causes of the war, see pps 357-64.
Literary Fund File no. 1515.
In an account of some
incidents in his life, Massey stated that his father had been forced
to give up work due to breaking his leg, and the firm pensioned him
off with a 4d. piece.
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/11/125-127. Undated.
Sheen and Shade:
Lyrical Poems. (London, Hall & Virtue, 1861), 141.
Ms. letter to the Rev.
Henry Alford (1810-1871) Dean of Canterbury, editor of the Greek
Testament and the Contemporary Review, requesting his
signature. (Gerald Massey Collection, Upper Norwood Library,
Tennyson Research Centre, Lincoln. Undated.
Ms. in the Bodleian
Library, Dep. Hughenden 136/1, fols. 70-73, together with a copy of
the printed Memorial.
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/12/176.
(1830-1899). Journalist and reviewer for the Athenæum, he
lived in Haverfordwest.
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/12/65
Athenæum, 31 Aug. 1861,
North British Review,
34, (May 1861), 350-74.
35, (Nov. 1861), 415-44.
The exact dates are
unknown. The files of the Daily Telegraph are very scanty for
Literary Fund File no. 1581.
and Daybreak, 17 May 1872, 177-8.
North British Review, 36,
(May 1862), 514-34.
Bradlaugh, Charles Bradlaugh. A record of his life and work 2
vols. (London, Unwin, 1908 ed.), 1, 189-93.
20 Nov., 25 Nov., 27 Nov., 28 Nov. 1862. Jersey Times,
Nov., 1 Dec., 5 Dec.,
8 Dec. 1862 (from the Guernsey Star).
He did not mention the
earlier lectures in Jersey, perhaps deliberately as they were not
part of a usual lecture circuit, or maybe he thought he would
receive more sympathy.
of Keir Collection. Ms. TSK.29/13/184. Undated.
Literature and the Pension List (London, Glaisher, 1889), 44.