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Book cover, Industrial Co-operation.

Industrial Co-operation:


THE STORY OF A PEACEFUL REVOLUTION

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Being an Account of the History, Theory, and Practice
of the Co-operative Movement in Great Britain
and Ireland.
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Prepared for the CO-OPERATIVE UNION by the SOUTHERN
CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION.

EDITED BY

CATHERINE WEBB.

WITH A PREFACE BY

L. L. PRICE, M.A.,

FELLOW OF ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD.

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Picture of Robert Owen, pioneer of co-operation.

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CONTENTS


PORTRAITS OF . . . .
ROBERT OWENJ. T. W. MITCHELLE. V. NEALE

PREFACE by L. L. Price, M.A.

EDITOR'S NOTE

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PART I.

Historical Outline

INTRODUCTION

Chapter I. — HISTORICAL OUTLINE.

Table of Events — Eighteenth Century: Age of Cottage Industry — Nineteenth Century:
Period of Despair — Robert Owen — Four-score Years of Co-operation

Chapter II. — PERIOD I. (1824:-1843) — ENTHUSIASTIC EXPERIMENT.

Table of Events — Distribution and Manufacture — Literature — Congresses

Chapter III. — PERIOD II. (1844-1863) — PIONEER WORK.

Table of Events — The Rochdale Pioneers — The Redemption Societies —
Corn Milling. The Christian Socialists

Chapter IV. — PERIOD III. (1864-1883) — THE CONSOLIDATION OF

THE CO-OPERATIVE STATE.

Table of Events — Classification of Co-operative Societies — Associations of Consumers —
Associations of Producers — Educational Work

Chapter V. — PERIOD IV. (1884-1903) — EXPANSION OF THE CO-OPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH.

Table of Events — Co-operative Development — Associations of Consumers —
Co-operative Problems — Co-operative Theory— Associations of Producers —
Propagandist and Educational Activity

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PART II.

Practical Developments.

Chapter VI. — LIFE AND WORK OF ROBERT OWEN (1771-1858).

I. Early Life — II. New Lanark Period (1800-1828) — III. “The Economist” —
IV. The “Crisis” Period (1832-4) — The Trades Union and Labour Exchange —
V. “The New Moral World” (1834-45) — VI. Old Age

Chapter VII. — EARLY CO-OPERATIVE EXPERIMENTS.

Corn Mill (1795) — The Co-operative and Economical Society (1821) —
The Brighton Co-operators (1828) — Fundamental Rules of Societies (1832) —
Causes of Failure — The Community Idea — Orbiston (1825-27 — Ralahine (1830-33) —
Objects of Association and Laws Success and Failure of the Experiment —
Queenwood (1839-44) — Labour Exchanges

 Chapter VIII. —THE ROCHDALE PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK.

The Pioneers’ Plan of Association — Religion and Politics —
Business Principles — Origin of “Dividend”

Chapter IX. — THE CHRISTIAN SOCIALISTS.

The Owenite Socialists — The Tenets of the Christian Socialists —
The Personality of their Leaders — Publications of the Christian Socialists —
The Effects of this Teaching — Practical Experiments —
The Society for Promoting Working Men’s Associations —
Causes of Non-success — Self-Governing Workshops Modified and Finally Superseded —
Work in Other Directions — The Working Men’s College — Legislative Reforms —
Their Lasting Place in Industrial History

Chapter X. — ASSOCIATION OF CONSUMERS. ECONOMIC THEORY.

What is Profit? Dividend Profit Sharing — (A) Associations of Consumers —
(B) Associations of Producers — The Consumer’s Theory of “Profit” —
Rochdale Corn Mill and Manufacturing Society, 1850 — Bonus
 

Chapter XI. — OBJECTS AND RULES OF RETAIL SOCIETIES.

Early Rules — Present-day Distributive Co-operation — Registration —
Exemption from income Tax — Restriction of Membership

Chapter XII. — GOVERNMENT, ADMINISTRATION AND

POSITION OF EMPLOYEES IN RETAIL SOCIETIES.

Meetings — Voting Power — Committee of Management — Methods of Election
Powers of Committee — The Responsible Officers — Auditors — The General Manager —
Bonds and Guarantees Checks — The Chief Causes of Financial Difficulty —
Methods of Book-keeping — Other Causes of Weakness — External Sources of Weakness —
The People’s Society — The Position of Employees

Chapter XIII. — WHOLESALE CO-OPERATION — HISTORY.

The North of England Wholesale Society, 1864  —
Change of Name to the Co-operative Wholesale Society —
Starting of the Scottish Wholesale Society, 1868 —
Points of Difference between the English and Scottish Wholesales

Chapter XIV. — WHOLESALE CO-OPERATION — DEVELOPMENT, PRESENT POSITION,

AND TREATMENT OF EMPLOYEES.

The English Co-operative Wholesale Methods of Business — Irish Creameries —
Productive Works — Hours, Wages, and Conditions of Labour — The Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society —
Productive Works — General Attitude towards Labour — Bonus to Labour in Scottish Wholesale —
Employee Shareholders — Educational and Charitable Purposes

Chapter XV. — WHOLESALE CO-OPERATION —

ORGANISATION, GOVERNMENT AND THEORY.

General Meetings — Board of Directors and their Powers — The late J . T. W. Mitchell —
The Theory of Consumers’ Production — The Control of Industries by the Community —
Points of Difference — Limitations and Weaknesses

Chapter XVI. — CO-OPERATIVE PRODUCTION — GENERAL SURVEY.

Types of Societies engaged in Production — Production by Distributive Societies —
Production by Federated Bodies — Productive Societies

Chapter XVII. — LABOUR CO-PARTNERSHIP.

Establishment of the Co-operative Productive Federation (1882) —
Establishment of the Labour Association and Aid Association (1883) —
Classification of Societies — Distribution of Power —
Geographical and Trade Distribution — General Characteristics —
Essential Features — Typical Distribution of Profits —
Typical Co-partnership Societies — The Claims of Co-partnerships —
The Advantage of the System — The Difficulties of the System — Can the System be Maintained? —
 Wages and Conditions of Labour — Competition between Societies —
Position of the Individual Investor — Transformation of Capitalism —
Co-partnership and the Co-operative Ideal — Work of the Co-operative Productive Federation —
 The Relation of Co-partnership to Consumers’ Societies — Propaganda — Future Developments

Chapter XVIII. — CO-OPERATION IN IRELAND — HISTORICAL SURVEY.

Social and Political Condition of Ireland — A Period of National Trial and Distress —
Early Distributive Societies  — Formation of the Irish Co-operative Aid Association —
Introduction of the Hon. Horace Plunkett — Formation of the Irish Section of the Co-operative Union —
Formation of the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society — The Extent of the Movement in 1902

Chapter XIX. — CO-OPERATION IN IRELAND ORGANISATION AND DEVELOPMENT.

Agricultural and Dairy Societies — Objects and Rules — Division of Profits —
Description of Dairy Societies — Some Early mistakes — The Small Shareholder —
Tendency to Centralisation — Winter Dairying — The Irish Co-operative Agency Society —
A National Brand of Butter — Agricultural Societies — The Agricultural Wholesale Society —
Egg and Poultry Societies — Table Poultry Trade — Home Industries Societies —
Flax Societies — Other Societies

Chapter XX. — CO-OPERATIVE BANKING AND CREDIT BANKS.

Discussion in Congress, 1869 — The Establishment of a Banking Department of the Wholesale Society —
The Industrial Bank — Present Position of the Wholesale Banking Department —
Small Savings and Penny Banks — Co-operative Credit Association — Labour Loan Societies —
Co-operative Credit Banks — Raifieisen Banks — Irish Agricultural Banks —
The “Gombeen” Man — Curious Methods of Raising Money

Chapter XXI. — MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES.

Co-operation in Agriculture — Co-operative Insurance — Co-operative House-Building —
The Amalgamated Union of C0-operative Employees — Co-operative Literature and Periodicals

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PART III.

Educational and Propagandist Activities

Chapter XXII. — THE CO-OPERATIVE UNION.

“Parochial” Work — Early Conferences and the Congress of 1869 —
The Establishment of a Central Board — Constitution of the Union — Rules of Admission —
Detailed Organisation — Qualifications for Members of Central Board — District Committees —
Executive Machinery — Advantages of the Union — The Annual Congress —
Officers of the Union — General Work of the Union — List of Congresses

Chapter XXIII. — CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION.

The Example of the Rochdale Pioneers — Professor Stuart’s Definitions —
Arnold Toynbee’s Trumpet Call — Establishment of the Educational Committee of the Union, 1885 —
The Committee of Inquiry, 1896 — The Educational Programme — Educational Committees of Societies —
Educational Committees’ Associations — The Women’s Co-operative Guild — The Scottish Co-operative
Women’s Guild — The Labour Co-partnership Association — The Co-operative International Alliance

Chapter XXIV. — PROBLEMS OF CO-OPERATION.

How to Reach the Poor — The Attitude of Co-operators Towards Political and Municipal Questions —
The Necessity for Recognising the Economic Tendencies of the Age —
The Connection between Co-operation and Other Movements

Chapter XXV. — THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT TO-DAY —

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.

Ho Far has it Kept its First Faith? —
How Far has the Rochdale Plan been Followed as Regards Pure Food —
As Regards Ready Money Trading — As Regards Fundamental Principles and Practice —
As Regards Self-Supporting Colonies — As Regards Temperance —
Its Present Great Need — Its Future Course

APPENDIX


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