GONE WITH THE WIND

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FOOTNOTES

1.

Water mills have always existed in greater numbers.  A flow of water can be controlled more precisely to provide the thrust required by the gearwork inside the mill.  Wind, on the other hand, does not always blow and when it does, its velocity and direction can change at any moment.

2.

A twisting force.

3.

That at fig.3.2 has additional floors for storage and living accommodation.

4.

Dust explosions are caused by the sudden ignition of air in which a heavy concentration of combustible dust particles are suspended — dust composed of grain, flour, starch or other organic materials is highly explosive.  Ignition can be caused by friction, static electricity or an open flame.

5.

Fairbairn conceived the ‘tubular bridge’, first used to carry the Holyhead railway across the River Conway and the Menai Straits in North Wales.

6.

In a letter written by C. O. Hillsdon to the owner of Wendover Mill, dated September 1932, the writer says “I always understood that my grandfather had something to do with Wendover Mill in his young days.  I also understood that he built Tring Windmill, Waddesdon, Hawridge.”  The Tring windmill referred to was more likely to have been Goldfield Mill than that at Gamnel Wharf, which probably dates from around 1810.

7.

Auctioned by Messrs Gibbs and Sons, the Kings Head Inn, Ivinghoe, 6th June 1842 (Bucks Advertiser and Aylesbury News, 14th May 1842).

8.

This is unlikely.  Freece believed that the post mill at Brill was older than it appears to be.  Recent dendrochronology testing suggest a date for Brill post mill at c.1680s.

9.

Repairs undertaken by the Tring boat-building firm, Bushell Brothers.

10.

Sometimes referred to incorrectly as Tring Wharf.

11.

The abandoned section of the Wendover Arm west of Little Tring is presently being restored by the Wendover Arm Trust.

12.

The London and Birmingham Railway reached Tring in October, 1837.

13.

The head office of Butcher’s Bank was situated in Tring High Street, in the building now occupied by NatWest Bank.  First created by Thomas Butcher in 1836 as an adjunct to his seed and corn business in the town, the bank continued trading until c.1900, when it was taken over by its London agent.  Following other acquisitions and mergers, Butcher’s Bank eventually became part of NatWest Bank.

14.

The nearby Ford End watermill remains in working order and is opened to the public.

15.

The mill’s cap is now a sitting room with a good view towards Mentmore (plate 20).

16.

The iron ring that sits on top of the tower and carries the rotatable cap.

17.

Bernwood Forest was one of several forests of the ancient Kingdom of England and was a Royal hunting forest.  It is thought to have been set aside as Royal hunting land when the Anglo-Saxon kings had a palace at Brill and church in Oakley, in the 10th century and was a particularly favoured place of Edward the Confessor, who was born in nearby Islip.

18.

. . . . it having been blown down — Sir Thomas Snell, its owner, incurred expenses of £175 5s for rebuilding.

19.

Following WWII, there was a severe shortage of building materials and of building workers, who were fully occupied with building new homes and repairing war damage.

20.

A lesser number were 6-sided, and a few even 10 or 12-sided.

21.

A little further afield is Cobstone smock mill (c.1816) at Turville, Buckinghamshire.

22.

The fantail was patented in 1745 by Edmund Lee, a blacksmith working at Brockmill Forge near Wigan, England, and perfected on mills around Leeds and Hull towards the end of the 18th century.


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GLOSSARY OF MILLING TERMS
 

BEDSTONE:

the lower of a pair of millstones, which remains stationary.

BINS:

wooden boxes for holding the grain.

BIN FLOOR:

floor of mill where the grain bins are situated.

BRAKE:

wooden or iron brake shoe encircling the brake wheel.

BRAKE WHEEL:

the largest gear wheel, fixed on the windshaft. The brake contracts onto its wooden rim.

BRAN:

partly ground husk of grain. The outer coating of a grain of wheat, rye, barley, or corn.  

BREAST:

front of a post mill.

BRIDGE:

metal bar cemented into eye of runner stone to act as bearing for the top of the spindle.

BUCK:

the body of a post mill.

CANISTER:

see Poll End.

CANT POSTS:

corner posts of a mill.

CAP:

the revolving top of a tower or smock mill.

CENTRE or MAIN POST:

the large central post which supports a post mill.

CHAIN WHEEL:

wheel turned by means of an endless chain. For winding mill or for working striking gear.

CILL:

low stone or brick wall.

COGS:

the wooden teeth (usually applewood) inserted into cast gear wheel to drive mill machinery.

COMMON SAILS:

sails with a wooden framework covered by canvas.         

COMPOSITION STONE:

millstone made from cement and carborundum.

CURB:

circular track at the top of the tower or smock mill on which the cap turns.

CROSS:

multi-armed iron casting fixed to the end of the windshaft to carry the sails.

CROSSTREES:

horizontal timbers at right angles which support the centre post of a post mill.

EYE:

hole in the centre of the runner stone through which grain passes into the middle of the two stones.

FANTAIL:

a small windmill which is used to keep a windmill facing into the wind automatically.

FAN STAGE:

platform at the rear of the cap of a smock or tower mill to provide access to the fantail fan at rear of cap which automatically turns it to face the wind.

FEED SHOE:

guides grain from hopper into eye of stone.

FLOUR DRESSER:

machine for separating flour from the rest of the meal.

FRENCH BURR:

freshwater quartz stone from France used to mill wheat.

FURROWS:

low part of pattern on the surface of millstones.

GALLERY:

a platform around the cap.

GOVERNOR:

automatic device which adjusts the distance between the stones as the sails turn faster or slower.

GREAT SPUR WHEEL:

large gear wheel on the upright shaft driving the stone nuts.

GRIST:

the blend of different wheats a miller selects to make flour. Most flours are made from a mixture of wheats.

HEAD WHEEL:

is carried on the windshaft in a post mill and has a brake around its circumference. It drives a stone nut.

LANDS:

high parts of pattern on the surfaces of millstones.

LUFFING:

see winding.

MIDDLINGS:

the coarsest part of the wheat meal ground by a mill; the last product excepting the bran remaining after finer grades of flour are sifted out.

MILL-BILL:

a chisel-ended tool used for dressing or sharpening the grinding surface of a millstone.

MILLSTONE GRIT:

the name given to the rock quarried in Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and used in making Peak or Grey millstones.

MILLING SOKE:

the manorial law governing ownership, building and usage of mills.

MILLER’S TOLL:

the portion of ground meal retained by the miller as payment for his services. It tended to vary between one tenth and one twentieth, with one-sixteenth being common.

MILLWRIGHT:

a craftsman who erected and maintained milling machinery. Early millwrights were specialist carpenters who at the start of the Industrial Revolution were pressed into service to build the earliest powered textile mills.

OVERDRIFT:

stones driven from above.

PATENT SAILS:

shuttered sails with self-regulating control gear to adjust their speed automatically.

PEAK STONE:

millstone grit from the Peak District of Derbyshire used for grinding animal feeds.         

PETTICOAT:

downward extension of the cap to cover the top of the tower against the weather.

PIERS:

brick supports of a trestle.

POLL END:

a cast iron socket at the end of the windshaft to hold the stocks.

POST MILL:

a type of mill in which the body of the mill pivots about a central upright timber post to enable the sails to be faced into the wind (“winded”).

ROLLER MILL:

a mill in which fluted metal rollers are used in place of millstones.

ROLLER REEFING SAILS:

use a canvas strip wound around a roller in place of shutters. The mill does not have to be stopped in order to adjust the sails.

ROUNDHOUSE:

building around the trestle of a post mill to protect it and provide storage.

RUNNER STONE:

top stone of a pair which is turned by the mill.         

SAILS:

the source of power in a windmill. They are carried on the windshaft. Most windmills had four sails, although some had five, six or even eight.

SCOURER:

a machine used to separate usable grain from debris such as dirt, dust, and chaff.

SEPARATOR:

a machine used to separate grain from other foreign objects, such as rocks, weeds, and twigs.

SHUTTERS:

a series of hinged vanes in vertical rows in spring and patent sails.

SMOCK MILL:

mill with wooden tower, often on a stone or brick base, with a revolving cap.

SMUTTER:

removes the black spots of smut caused by a fungus disease that can grow on grain if its gets damp.

SPIDER:

metal coupling operating the shutters of patent sails.

SPRING SAILS:

sails with shutters linked to a spring, the tension of which can be set manually so that the shutters will open and close according to wind strength.

STAGING:

a platform around the body of the mill.

STOCKS:

heavy timbers to which the sails are fitted.

STONE DRESSER:

a man whose profession it is to re-sharpen (or dress) millstones.

STONE FLOOR:

the floor of the mill on which the millstones are located.

STONE NUT:

final gear at top of quant which drives the stones.

STRIKING GEAR:

mechanism to open and close the shutters on sails.

SWEEPS:

the term sometimes used to describe the sails.         

TAIL:

the rear end of a post mill.

TAIL POLE:

a long timber at the rear of a post mill or cap used to turn it manually.

TAIL WHEEL:

wheel mounted at rear of windshaft to drive a second set of stones.

TAIL WINDING:

when a wind catches the sails from the rear; a strong tail wind has been known to blow the cap off the tower.

TALTHUR:

small beam attached to tail pole which when hooked to the ladder will lift it clear of the ground while the mill is being winded.

TENTERING GEAR:

device to make fine adjustments to the gap between the millstones.

TOWER MILL:

mill with a brick tower and revolving cap.

TRESTLE:

wooden substructure of a post mill supporting the main post.         

TUN CASE:

see VAT

UNDERDRIFT:

stones driven from beneath.

VANES:

blades of a fantail.

VAT:

removable wooden case enclosing millstones.

WALLOWER:

horizontal gearwheel at top of upright shaft taking drive directly from the brake wheel.

WHIP:

the backbone of a sail or sweep.

WINDBOARD:

wide board replacing the shutters on inner half of leading edge of sails.

WINDING:

process of turning sails into the eye of the wind.

WINDSHAFT:

main axle of iron or wood that carries the sails and brake wheel.


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SOURCES
 

Austin, Wendy
Tring Personalities (2000)
The Second Tring Collection (2007)
Davis, Jean
Aldbury the Open Village (1987)
Fairbairn, Sir William
Treatise on Mills and Millwork (1865)
Farnell, Mary
The Account Books of William Cooper, Millwright of Aylesbury (held by Buckinghamshire Record Office together with the ledgers)
Farr, Diana
Gilbert Cannan: A Georgian Prodigy (1978)
Freese, Stanley
Windmills of Buckinghamshire (collated notes, mostly dating from the 1930s, held in the Centre for Buckinghamshire Local Studies, Aylesbury)
Freese, Stanley
Windmills and Millwrighting (1957)
Hopkins, F.T., Freese, Stanley.
In Search of Windmills (1931)
Jones, Ken
Chiltern Windmills (1972)
Moore, Cyril
Hertfordshire Windmills and Windmillers (1999)
Rose, Walter
The Village Carpenter (1937)
Smith, Arthur C.
Windmills of Hertfordshire (1972)
Smith, Donald
English Windmills, Vol. II (1932)
Summervell, Samuels, Mead, and Eckett
The Book of Wendover (1989)
Wailes, Rex
The English Windmill (1954)
Wray, David
Pitstone Windmill (1976)

 

. . . . also . . . .

 

Guide to Quainton Windmill, Bernard Hall (2007).

Notes on Marsworth Mill compiled by Mrs M Bellhouse (2005).

Notes on the history of Pitstone (Brook End) Mill by Keith Russell (2009).

National Census Records 1841 - 1901.

Trade directories 1823 - 1930.

The Bucks Herald archives.

The Bucks Advertiser & Aylesbury News archives.

Hertfordfordshire Countryside archives.

The Berkhamsted Gazette, 24 December 1954.

OS maps and others as credited in the text.


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THE END
 


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